Vitamin B1 Substances

Vitamin B1 Substances

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006

Acetiamine Hydrochloride

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Acethiamine Hydrochloride; Acetiamina, hidrocloruro de; Diacethiamine Hydrochloride
INN: Acetiamine Hydrochloride [rINNM (en)]
INN: Hidrocloruro de acetiamina [rINNM (es)]
INN: Acétiamine, Chlorhydrate d' [rINNM (fr)]
INN: Acetiamini Hydrochloridum [rINNM (la)]
INN: Ацетиамина Гидрохлорид [rINNM (ru)]
Chemical name: N-(5-Acetoxy-3-acetylthiopent-2-en-2-yl)-N-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)formamide hydrochloride monohydrate
Molecular formula: C16H22N4O4S,HCl,H2O =420.9
CAS: 299-89-8 (acetiamine)
Chemical Structure of Acetiamine

Chemical Structure of Acetiamine

Benfotiamine

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: S-Benzoylthiamine O-Monophosphate; Benfotiamina
INN: Benfotiamine [rINN (en)]
INN: Benfotiamina [rINN (es)]
INN: Benfotiamine [rINN (fr)]
INN: Benfotiaminum [rINN (la)]
INN: Бенфотиамин [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: N-(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-N-(2-benzoylthio-4-dihydroxyphosphinyloxy-1-methylbut-1-enyl)formamide
Molecular formula: C19H23N4O6PS =466.4
CAS: 22457-89-2
ATC code: A11DA03
Chemical Structure of Benfotiamine

Chemical Structure of Benfotiamine

Bisbentiamine

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: O-Benzoylthiamine Disulphide; Bisbentiamina
INN: Bisbentiamine [rINN (en)]
INN: Bisbentiamina [rINN (es)]
INN: Bisbentiamine [rINN (fr)]
INN: Bisbentiaminum [rINN (la)]
INN: Бисбентиамин [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: NN´-{Dithiobis[2-(2-benzoyloxyethyl)-1-methylvinylene]}bis[N-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)formamide]
Molecular formula: C38H42N8O6S2 =770.9
CAS: 2667-89-2
Chemical Structure of Bisbentiamine

Chemical Structure of Bisbentiamine

Cocarboxylase

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Co-carboxylase; Diphosphothiamine; Pyruvodehydrase; Thiamine Pyrophosphate
BAN: Cocarboxylase
INN: Cocarboxylase [rINN (en)]
INN: Cocarboxilasa [rINN (es)]
INN: Cocarboxylase [rINN (fr)]
INN: Cocarboxylasum [rINN (la)]
INN: Кокарбоксилаза [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: 3-(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-5-{2-[dihydroxyphosphinyloxy(hydroxy)phosphinyloxy]ethyl}-4-methylthiazolium hydroxide
Molecular formula: C12H20N4O8P2S (hydroxide form) =442.3
CAS: 154-87-0 (cocarboxylase chloride)
Chemical Structure of Cocarboxylase

Chemical Structure of Cocarboxylase

Pharmacopoeias:

Pol. includes the chloride.

Cycotiamine

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: CCT; Cicotiamina; Cyclocarbothiamine
INN: Cycotiamine [rINN (en)]
INN: Cicotiamina [rINN (es)]
INN: Cycotiamine [rINN (fr)]
INN: Cycotiaminum [rINN (la)]
INN: Цикотиамин [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: N-(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-N-[1-(2-oxo-1,3-oxathian-4-ylidene)ethyl]formamide
Molecular formula: C13H16N4O3S =308.4
CAS: 6092-18-8
Chemical Structure of Cycotiamine

Chemical Structure of Cycotiamine

Fursultiamine

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Fursultiamina; TTFD; Thiamine Tetrahydrofurfuryl Disulphide
INN: Fursultiamine [rINN (en)]
INN: Fursultiamina [rINN (es)]
INN: Fursultiamine [rINN (fr)]
INN: Fursultiaminum [rINN (la)]
INN: Фурсультиамин [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: N-(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-N-[4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-(tetrahydrofurfuryldithio)but-1-enyl]formamide
Molecular formula: C17H26N4O3S2 =398.5
CAS: 804-30-8
Chemical Structure of Fursultiamine

Chemical Structure of Fursultiamine

Octotiamine

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Octotiamina; Octotiaminum; Oktotiamiini; Oktotiamin; TATD; Thioctothiamine
INN: Octotiamine [rINN (en)]
INN: Octotiamina [rINN (es)]
INN: Octotiamine [rINN (fr)]
INN: Octotiaminum [rINN (la)]
INN: Октотиамин [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: N-[2-(3-Acetylthio-7-methoxycarbonylheptyldithio)-4-hydroxy-1-methylbut-1-enyl]-N-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)formamide
Molecular formula: C23H36N4O5S3 =544.8
CAS: 137-86-0
Chemical Structure of Octotiamine

Chemical Structure of Octotiamine

Prosultiamine

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: DTPT; Prosultiamina; Thiamine Propyl Disulphide
INN: Prosultiamine [rINN (en)]
INN: Prosultiamina [rINN (es)]
INN: Prosultiamine [rINN (fr)]
INN: Prosultiaminum [rINN (la)]
INN: Просультиамин [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: N-(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-N-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-propyldithiobut-1-enyl)formamide
Molecular formula: C15H24N4O2S2 =356.5
CAS: 59-58-5
Chemical Structure of Prosultiamine

Chemical Structure of Prosultiamine

Sulbutiamine

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: O-Isobutyrylthiamine Disulphide; Bisibutiamine; Sulbutiamina
INN: Sulbutiamine [rINN (en)]
INN: Sulbutiamina [rINN (es)]
INN: Sulbutiamine [rINN (fr)]
INN: Sulbutiaminum [rINN (la)]
INN: Сульбутиамин [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: NN´-{Dithiobis[2-(2-isobutyryloxyethyl)-1-methylvinylene]}bis[N-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)formamide]
Molecular formula: C32H46N8O6S2 =702.9
CAS: 3286-46-2
ATC code: A11DA02
Chemical Structure of Sulbutiamine

Chemical Structure of Sulbutiamine

Thiamine Hydrochloride

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Aneurine Hydrochloride; Thiamin Hydrochloride; Thiamin-hydrochlorid; Thiamine Chloride; Thiamini Hydrochloridum; Thiaminii Chloridum; Tiamiinihydrokloridi; Tiamin-hidroklorid; Tiamina, hidrocloruro de; Tiaminhydroklorid; Tiamino hidrochloridas; Vitamin B1
BAN: Thiamine Hydrochloride [BANM]
INN: Thiamine Hydrochloride [rINNM (en)]
INN: Hidrocloruro de tiamina [rINNM (es)]
INN: Thiamine, Chlorhydrate de [rINNM (fr)]
INN: Thiamini Hydrochloridum [rINNM (la)]
INN: Тиамина Гидрохлорид [rINNM (ru)]
Chemical name: 3-(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride hydrochloride
Molecular formula: C12H17ClN4OS,HCl =337.3
CAS: 59-43-8 (thiamine); 67-03-8 (thiamine hydrochloride)
ATC code: A11DA01
Read code: y02uB
Chemical Structure of Thiamine

Chemical Structure of Thiamine

Pharmacopoeias:

In Chin., Eur. (see Go to European Pharmacopoeia Convention Signatories) ,Int.,Jpn,Pol.,US, and Viet.

Thiamine hydrobromide is included in Int.

Ph. Eur. 5.5 (Thiamine Hydrochloride). A white or almost white, crystalline powder or colourless crystals. Freely soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble in glycerol. A 2.5% solution in water has a pH of 2.7 to 3.3. Store in nonmetallic containers. Protect from light.

USP 29 (Thiamine Hydrochloride). White crystals or crystalline powder, usually having a slight, characteristic odour. When exposed to air, the anhydrous product rapidly absorbs about 4% of water. Soluble 1 in 1 of water and 1 in 170 of alcohol; insoluble in ether and in benzene; soluble in glycerol. pH of a 1% solution in water is between 2.7 and 3.4. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.

Physicochemical Characteristics

Stability.

Sterile thiamine hydrochloride solutions of pH 4 or less lose activity only very slowly but neutral or alkaline solutions deteriorate rapidly, especially in contact with air.

Thiamine Nitrate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 22-Apr-1998; 03-Sep-1999; 30-Oct-2001; 25-May-2004; 08-Mar-2006; 24-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Aneurine Mononitrate; Thiamin-nitrát; Thiamine Mononitrate; Thiamini Nitras; Tiamiininitraatti; Tiamin-nitrát; Tiamina, nitrato de; Tiaminnitrat; Tiamino nitratas; Vitamin B1 Mononitrate
BAN: Thiamine Nitrate [BANM]
INN: Thiamine Nitrate [rINNM (en)]
INN: Nitrato de tiamina [rINNM (es)]
INN: Thiamine, Nitrate de [rINNM (fr)]
INN: Thiamini Nitras [rINNM (la)]
INN: Тиамина Нитрат [rINNM (ru)]
Chemical name: 3-(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-ylmethyl)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium nitrate
Molecular formula: C12H17N5O4S =327.4
CAS: 532-43-4
ATC code: A11DA01
Pharmacopoeias:

In Chin., Eur. (see Go to European Pharmacopoeia Convention Signatories), Int., Jpn, Pol., US, and Viet.

Ph. Eur. 5.5 (Thiamine Nitrate). A white or almost white, crystalline powder or small, colourless crystals. Sparingly soluble in water; freely soluble in boiling water; slightly soluble in alcohol and in methyl alcohol. A 2% solution in water has a pH of 6.8 to 7.6. Store in nonmetallic containers. Protect from light.

USP 29 (Thiamine Mononitrate). White crystals or crystalline powder, usually having a slight characteristic odour. Soluble 1 in 44 of water; slightly soluble in alcohol; very slightly soluble in chloroform. pH of a 2% solution in water is between 6.0 and 7.5. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.

Adverse Effects and Precautions

Adverse effects with thiamine are rare, but hypersensitivity reactions have occurred, mainly after parenteral doses. These reactions have ranged in severity from very mild to, very rarely, fatal anaphylactic shock (see Go to Hypersensitivity.).

Breast feeding.

Supplementation did not significantly affect thiamine concentration in breast milk of healthy, well-nourished women when compared with those not given thiamine; the authors supposed that absorptive capacity of the mammary gland may be saturable.1 Based on this, the American Academy of Pediatrics considers its use to be usually compatible with breast feeding.2

  1. 1. Nail PA, et al. The effect of thiamin and riboflavin supplementation on the level of those vitamins in human breast milk and urine. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 198–204. PubMed
  2. 2. American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 776–89. PubMed Correction. ibid.; 1029. Also available at: online (accessed 09/01/06)

Hypersensitivity.

The UK CSM had received, between 1970 and July 1988, 90 reports of adverse reactions associated with the use of an injection containing high doses of vitamins B and C. The most frequent reactions were anaphylaxis (41 cases, including 2 fatalities), dyspnoea or bronchospasm (13 cases), and rash or flushing (22 cases); 78 of the reactions occurred during, or shortly after, intravenous injection and the other 12 after intramuscular injection.1 They recommended that parenteral treatment be used only when essential, and that, when given, facilities for treating anaphylaxis should be available. They also recommended that, when the intravenous route was used, the injection be given slowly (over 10 minutes). Various authors2,3 have noted that parenteral treatment is essential for the prophylaxis and treatment of Wernicke's encephalopathy (see Go to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.). However, further reports of anaphylaxis to parenteral thiamine have since been described,4-6 including one with a fatal outcome.4

  1. 1. Committee on Safety of Medicines. Parentrovite & allergic reactions. Current Problems 24 1989.
  2. 2. Wrenn KD, Slovis CM. Is intravenous thiamine safe? Am J Emerg Med 1992; 10: 165. PubMed
  3. 3. Thomson AD, Cook CCH. Parenteral thiamine and Wernicke's encephalopathy: the balance of risks and concerns. Alcohol Alcohol 1997; 32: 207–9. PubMed
  4. 4. Van Haecke P, et al. Thiamine-induced anaphylactic shock. Am J Emerg Med 1995; 13: 371–2. PubMed
  5. 5. Morinville V, et al. Anaphylaxis to parenteral thiamine (vitamin B1). Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1998; 128: 1743–4. PubMed
  6. 6. Johri S, et al. Anaphylaxis from intravenous thiamine—long forgotten? Am J Emerg Med 2000; 18: 642–3. PubMed

Pharmacokinetics

Small amounts of thiamine are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral doses, but the absorption of doses larger than about 5 mg is limited. It is also rapidly absorbed on intramuscular injection. It is widely distributed to most body tissues, and appears in breast milk. Within the cell, thiamine is mostly present as the diphosphate. Thiamine is not stored to any appreciable extent in the body and amounts in excess of the body's requirements are excreted in the urine unchanged or as metabolites.

References.

  1. 1. Weber W, et al. Nonlinear kinetics of the thiamine cation in humans: saturation of nonrenal clearance and tubular reabsorption. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 1990; 18: 501–23. PubMed
  2. 2. Tallaksen CME, et al. Kinetics of thiamin and thiamin phosphate esters in human blood, plasma and urine after 50 mg intravenously or orally. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 44: 73–8. PubMed
  3. 3. Loew D. Pharmacokinetics of thiamine derivatives especially of benfotiamine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996; 34: 47–50. PubMed
  4. 4. Greb A, Bitsch R. Comparative bioavailability of various thiamine derivatives after oral administration. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 36: 216–21. PubMed
  5. 5. Frank T, et al. High thiamine diphosphate concentrations in erythrocytes can be achieved in dialysis patients by oral administration of benfotiamine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56: 251–7. PubMed
  6. 6. Drewe J, et al. Effect of intravenous infusions of thiamine on the disposition kinetics of thiamine and its pyrophosphate. J Clin Pharm Ther 2003; 28: 47–51. PubMed

Human Requirements

Thiamine requirements are directly related to the carbohydrate intake and the metabolic rate. A daily dietary intake of about 0.9 to 1.5 mg of thiamine is recommended for healthy men and about 0.8 to 1.1 mg for healthy women. Cereals, nuts, peas, beans, yeast, and pork are rich sources of thiamine. Some other meats especially liver or kidneys, and also fish, contain significant amounts. Flour and bakery products are often enriched with thiamine. Considerable losses of thiamine may result from cooking processes.

UK and US recommended dietary intake.

In the UK dietary reference values (see Go to Human requirements.) have been published for thiamine1 and similarly in the USA recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) have been set.2 In the UK for adult males and females the reference nutrient intake (RNI) is 0.4 mg per 1000 kcal daily and the estimated average requirement (EAR) is 0.3 mg per 1000 kcal daily. In the USA an RDA of 1.2 mg daily in adult males and 1.1 mg daily in females is recommended.

  1. 1. DoH. Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom: report of the panel on dietary reference values of the committee on medical aspects of food policy. Report on health and social subjects 41. London: HMSO, 1991.
  2. 2. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes of the Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Also available at: online (accessed 06/01/06)

Uses and Administration

Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, although some of its derivatives have greater lipophilicity. It is an essential coenzyme for carbohydrate metabolism in the form of the diphosphate (thiamine pyrophosphate, cocarboxylase). Thiamine deficiency develops when the dietary intake is inadequate; severe deficiency leads to the development of a syndrome known as beri-beri. Chronic 'dry' beri-beri is characterised by peripheral neuropathy, muscle wasting and muscle weakness, and paralysis. Acute 'wet' beri-beri is characterised by cardiac failure and oedema. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (demyelination of the CNS) may develop in severe cases of thiamine deficiency notably in association with chronic alcoholism. Severe thiamine deficiency, characterised by lactic acidosis and neurological deterioration, has been reported within a relatively short time of starting thiamine-free total parenteral nutrition; some deaths have occurred.

Thiamine is used in the treatment and prevention of thiamine deficiency. It is given by mouth, the preferred route, or if necessary by the intramuscular or intravenous routes (but see Hypersensitivity, Go to Hypersensitivity.); intravenous injections should be given slowly over 10 minutes. In the treatment of mild chronic thiamine deficiency usual doses of 10 to 25 mg daily by mouth, in single or divided doses, have been recommended. In severe thiamine deficiency doses of up to 300 mg daily are given, and even higher daily doses may be used in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome by the intravenous route.

Thiamine is usually given as either the hydrochloride or nitrate salts although other salts such as the dicamsylate, disulfide, monophosphate (monophosphothiamine) or pyrophosphate (cocarboxylase) may be used.

Other compounds that possess vitamin B1 activity and may be given as alternatives to thiamine include benfotiamine, cycotiamine, octotiamine, prosultiamine, and sulbutiamine. Acetiamine, bisbentiamine, and fursultiamine have also been used.

Diabetic neuropathy.

In a small placebo-controlled study, benfotiamine 100 mg given four times daily by mouth significantly improved neuropathic pain in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (see Go to Diabetic neuropathy.).1

  1. 1. Haupt E, et al. Benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy—a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP Study). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 43: 71–7. PubMed

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a manifestation of thiamine deficiency seen particularly in alcoholics, but which may accompany other conditions including starvation or prolonged fasting, or persistent vomiting. It was originally classified as two separate disorders, Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome, but these are now thought to represent aspects of a single pathological process.1,2

Classical Wernicke's symptoms comprise confusion, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus. Ophthalmoplegia and ataxia may precede the mental symptoms by some days. Hypothermia may be seen, and collapse and sudden death may occur in some patients. The manifestations of Korsakoff's syndrome are short-term memory loss, learning deficits, and confabulation. The conditions are associated with demyelination and glial proliferation, as well as haemorrhagic lesions, mainly in the periventricular regions of the brain; characteristic biochemical abnormalities include raised serum-pyruvate concentration, which has been postulated as a cause of encephalopathy.3

Early recognition and treatment is important, both because of the risk of collapse and sudden death,4 and to prevent irreversible damage to the CNS. Korsakoff symptoms respond less well to treatment than those associated with Wernicke's encephalopathy,5 and may indeed only become evident on treatment.

Treatment is with parenteral thiamine, preferably intravenously, to ensure adequate absorption; any risks of parenteral treatment are considered justifiable.1,2,6,7 Although as little as 2 or 3 mg may be enough to reverse the ocular symptoms, which generally begin to improve in 1 to 6 hours, doses of at least 100 mg should be given initially. (In practice a typical dose is 500 mg given intravenously with other vitamins every 8 hours, for 2 days if symptoms persist, and followed by 100 mg twice daily by mouth, or 250 mg daily intravenously until the patient can take oral thiamine.6,8) The ataxia and acute confusional state may also resolve dramatically although improvement may not be noted for days or months. Even several months after the onset of symptoms, treatment with high doses of thiamine has occasionally resulted in recovery.9 The effects of the syndrome on memory are much harder to reverse. Some 25% of patients make a full, and 50% a partial, recovery.5

For further information on the substances mentioned above, see:

  • Thiamine (see Vitamin B1 Substances, Go to Vitamin B1 Substances)
  1. 1. Cook CCH, et al. B vitamin deficiency and neuropsychiatric syndromes in alcohol misuse. Alcohol Alcohol 1998; 33: 317–36. PubMed
  2. 2. Thomson AD. Mechanisms of vitamin deficiency in chronic alcohol misusers and the development of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Alcohol Alcohol 2000; 35 (suppl): 2–7. PubMed
  3. 3. Petrie WM, Ban TA. Vitamins in psychiatry: do they have a role? Drugs 1985; 30: 58–65. PubMed
  4. 4. Reuler JB, et al. Wernicke's encephalopathy. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 1035–9. PubMed
  5. 5. Anonymous. Korsakoff's syndrome. Lancet 1990; 336: 912–13. PubMed
  6. 6. Cook CCH, Thomson AD. B-complex vitamins in the prophylaxis and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Br J Hosp Med 1997; 57: 461–5. PubMed
  7. 7. Cook CCH. Prevention and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Alcohol Alcohol 2000; 35 (suppl): 19–20. PubMed
  8. 8. Chataway J, Hardman E. Thiamine doses for alcohol withdrawal. Br J Hosp Med 1994; 51: 615. PubMed
  9. 9. Carota A, Schnider A. Dramatic recovery from prolonged Wernicke-Korsakoff disease. Eur Neurol 2005; 53: 45–6. PubMed

Preparations

Single-ingredient Preparations

The symbol ¤ denotes a preparation which is discontinued or no longer actively marketed.

Argentina: Megastene; Australia: Beta-Sol; Betamin; Betatabs¤; Invite B1¤; Austria: Beneuran; Bevitol; Diclo-B; Judolor¤; Belgium: Aneurol¤; Benerva; Beneurol; Beston¤; Betamine; Tabiomyl¤; Brazil: Arcalion; Becaps¤; Benerva; Neurivit; Proton¤; Canada: Betaxin; Bewon¤; Chile: Betamin¤; Czech Republic: Benfogamma; Thiabene; Finland: Neuramin; Vita-B1; France: Arcalion; Benerva; Bevitine; Vitanevril Fort¤; Germany: Aneurin¤; B1-ASmedic; B1 Vicotrat¤; Betabion; Imilgamma¤; Judolor¤; Lophakomp-B1¤; Milgamma mono; Greece: Arcalion; Benerva; Hong Kong: Arcalion; Super B1; Hungary: Benfogamma; Beres B1; India: Arcalion; Benalgis; Ireland: Benerva¤; Italy: Benerva; Betabion¤; Bisolvit¤; Bivitasi; CO-B1¤; Cocarvit¤; Pirofosfasi¤; Trifosfaneurina¤; Japan: Alinamin-F; Biotamin¤; Cometamin¤; Neuvita; Malaysia: Arcalion; Mexico: Benal; Benerva; Carzilasa; MTX-2 Alf; TTC; X-2; Portugal: Arcalion; Trifosfaneurina; Russia: Benfogamma (Бенфогамма); Enerion (Енерион); Singapore: Arcalion; Spain: Arcalion; Benerva; Glutaneurina B6 Fte¤; Neurostop; Ribothiamina Doble Ftma¤; Surmenalit; Vitantial¤; Sweden: Benerva; Betabion; Switzerland: Arcalion; Benerva; Nicobrevin N; Thailand: Alinamin-F; Arcalion; Menamin¤; United Arab Emirates: Thiavit; United Kingdom: Benerva; United States: Betalin S¤; Thiamilate¤; Venezuela: Arcalion;

Multi-ingredient Preparations

The symbol ¤ denotes a preparation which is discontinued or no longer actively marketed.

Argentina: Algio Nervomax Fuerte; Algio Nervomax; Co-Tioctan; Cobenexol Forte; Cobenexol Fuerte; CVP B1 B6 B12; Dexabion; Dexabion; Dolo Nervobion 10000; Dolo Nervobion; Dorixina B1 B6 B12; Dr Calm¤; Klosidol B1 B6 B12; Nervobion Fuerte; Nervomax TB12; Venostasin; Australia: Angesil Plus¤; Berberis Complex; Migran-eze¤; Slimrite¤; Austria: Ambene N; Arca-Be; Beneuran compositum; Beneuran Vit B-Komplex; Calcisan B + C; Diclovit; Dilaescol; Dolo-Neurobion; Neurobion; Neuromerck; Neuromultivit; Noxenur¤; Pronerv; Belgium: Algo-Nevriton¤; Betapyr; Neurobion; Vioneurin; Brazil: Aminocid; Betinjectol¤; Bituelve¤; Boldobeba¤; Ceviron¤; Cianotrat-Dexa; Citoneurin; Copena¤; Dexa-Citoneurin; Dexa-Cronobe; Dexa-Neuriberi; Dexacobal; Dexador; Dexadoze; Dexagil; Dexaneurin; Dexanevral; Doxal; Dozeneurin; Espasmocron; Fol Sang; Lisan; Rubizuel¤; Sulfato Ferroso Composto; Sulfatofer; Trinalgen¤; Trinevral¤; Trirubin; Venofortan; Venostasin; Vibetrat Dexa¤; Vibetrat¤; Vipirim¤; Vitaneuron; Canada: Penta-3B + C; Penta-3B; Penta-Thion; Chile: Betonvit; Dolotol 12; Nefersil B; Neurobionta; Neurocam; Tol 12; Czech Republic: Milgamma N; Milgamma N; Milgamma; Neuromultivit; Finland: Neurobion; Neurovitan; France: Algimax¤; Algo-Nevriton¤; Banikol Vitamine B1¤; Campho-Pneumine Aminophylline¤; Campho-Pneumine¤; Enuretine¤; Epanal¤; F.E.V.¤; Glutamag Vitamine B1¤; Hexaquine; Inadrox¤; Nevral Vitamine B1-B6¤; Paranico¤; Thiobanzyme¤; Thioderazine vitaminee B1 forte¤; Thioderazine vitaminee B1¤; Vita B¤; Vita-Iodurol ATP¤; Vita-Iodurol¤; Vitanevril B6-B12¤; Vitathion; Germany: Aescorin¤; Augentropfen Thilo¤; B 12 Nervinfant¤; B1/6 Effekton¤; B1-Neurischian¤; Bevit Forte; Cephalo-Teknosal¤; Cheihepar¤; Discmigon¤; Dolo-Neurobion forte; Dolo-Neurobion N; Fortivenat¤; Ger N in der Ophtiole¤; Hepalixier¤; Hewedolor neuro; Jasivita¤; Judolor comp. N¤; Medivitan N Neuro; Milgamma N; Milgamma-NA; Milgamma; Milneuron NA; Nervinfant¤; Neuralysan S¤; Neuro uno¤; Neuro-AS N¤; neuro-B forte; Neuro-Effekton B; neuro-L¤; Neuro-Lichtenstein M; Neuro-Lichtenstein N; Neuro-ratiopharm N; Neuro-ratiopharm¤; Neuro-Rotexmedica N¤; Neuro-Vibolex; Neuro; Neurobion N; Neurobion; Neurogrisevit N¤; Neurotrat S; Neurotrat¤; Novirell B Duo; Novirell B¤; Oxygenabund¤; Pantovigar N; Passiorin¤; Pleomix-B; Recatol N¤; Recatol¤; Regepithel; varico sanol forte¤; Varitan¤; Venalitan¤; Vidirakt N¤; Vitaject¤; Vitamin B 15¤; Vitamin B duo; Vitobasan N¤; Greece: Neurobion; Hong Kong: 3B; Alinamin-F; Childrens Coltalin with Vit B1¤; Coltalin with Vit B1¤; Magesto; Neuro B1-6-12¤; Neurobion; Neurorubine; Nevramin; Princi-B Fort; Regepithel¤; Tonterin¤; Vida Neurotab; Vidaclofen-Plus; Hungary: Milgamma N; Milgamma; Neurobion; India: Sioneuron; Vitneurin; Israel: Betrivit¤; Calmanervin; Tribemin; Italy: Adeneurina¤; Adenobeta¤; Adenoplex Forte; Adenovit; Antiadiposo; Artrobetin¤; Benexol B12; Benexol B12; CO-B12 (Cobidodici)¤; Cobalton¤; Dobetin con Vitamina B1; Dobetin Totale; Emazian B12¤; Emoantitossina¤; Emofol¤; Emopon; Esaglut¤; Fevital¤; Fibronevrina; Firmavit¤; Flavobetasi¤; Folepar B12; For Liver¤; Fosforilasi¤; Fosforilasi; Fosfoutipi Vitaminico¤; Fosfozimin¤; Fruttidasi¤; Globuleno¤; Glutestere B-Complesso¤; Liedasi¤; Menalgon B6¤; Menalgon¤; Mionevrasi Forte¤; Mionevrasi¤; Neuraben; Neurobionta¤; Neuroftal¤; Nevril¤; Nevrum¤; Novaneurina B12¤; Nucleonevrina¤; Odontalgico Dr. Knapp con Vit. B1; OH B12 B1¤; Piruvasi¤; Pungino¤; Retinovix¤; Rubjovit; Sinevrile¤; Tonoliver 10000¤; Trebi¤; Tridodilan¤; Triferon¤; Trinevrina B6; Uridinvit Forte¤; Japan: Neurovitan¤; Malaysia: 3B; Alinamin B12¤; Flavettes Neuroforte; Neuro B¤; Neurobion; Neurorubine; Neurovit; Nevramin; Nevramin; Princi-B Fort; Mexico: B1-12-15; Bedocil¤; Benexol B12; Cobotiaxina; Dexabion; Dolo Pangavit; Dolo-Neurobion; Dolo-Tiaminal; Duciclon; Ferrotemp; Forvin; Lipovitasi-Or; Macrox-5; Neuralin; Neurobion; Ofzim; Pangavit B; Pangavit Hypak; Pangavit Pediatrico; Selectadoce; Suma-B; Tiabexol¤; Tiamidexal; Tiaminal B12 Trivalente; Tiaminal B12; Tribedoce Compuesto; Tribedoce; Tribedoxyl¤; Uni-Dox; Monaco: Dissolvurol¤; Netherlands: Princi B1 + B6; Portugal: Cebrotex Forte; Linamin Plus¤; Neurobion¤; Tridocemine¤; Russia: Aescusan (Ескузан); Benalgin (Бенальгин); Milgamma (Мильгамма); Milgamma (Мильгамма); Neuromultivit (Нейромультивит); South Africa: Kiddie Vite¤; Neurobion; Singapore: 3B¤; Alinamin B12; Alinamin-F; Neurobion; Neurodex; Neuroforte; Neurorubine; Neurovit; Nevramin; Princi-B Fort; Spain: Acetuber; Alegrina¤; Anemotron¤; Antineurina; Artro Gamma Vit B1¤; Benexol B1 B6 B12; Besinergial¤; Bester Complex; Betriple¤; Calcio 20 Coenzimas¤; Calcio 20 FTE¤; Calmante Vitaminado Infant¤; Calmante Vitaminado PG Efervescente; Calmante Vitaminado PG; Calmante Vitaminado Rinver; Cocardoce¤; Cofetil¤; Cotrizima¤; Dalamon¤; Doneurina¤; Epixian¤; Frual¤; Gammamida Complex¤; Hepavimil Parenteral¤; Hepavimil¤; Hidroxil B12 B6 B1; Inzitan; Mederebro Compuesto¤; Mederebro; Meloka; Menalgil B6; Menalgil¤; Nervobion; Neurocatavin¤; Neuromade; Neurostop Complex; Otogen¤; Pazbronquial; Quimpedor; Ramatocina¤; Raquivit¤; Refulgin; Risunal A¤; Sedionbel¤; Sugarceton¤; Teovit¤; Thioderazine B1¤; Tiazotin¤; Toniasten¤; Tonozime UTP¤; Viadetres¤; Vitallon 3B¤; Vitonisan B¤; Sweden: Neurobion; Switzerland: Alcacyl-B1¤; Algo-Nevriton¤; Arconeurine¤; Benexol B12; Nerva-Phos¤; Neurotrat¤; Tribeton¤; Trilagavit¤; Thailand: 3B; Alinamin B12¤; Alinamin-F; Beromin; Cydoxmine-B¤; Cyriamine; Diasgest; Digestin; Douzabox; Endogest¤; Genavit; Hemolax; Mesto-Of¤; Neubee; Neurobex; Neurobion; Nevramin; Nuro-B; Nuvit; Princi-B; Re-B Forte; Tribesian; Trivit-B; Vioneurin¤; Vita-B; Vitamedin; Vitron; United Arab Emirates: 3V; United Kingdom: Feravol-G¤; Ironplan¤; Labiton; Quiet Life; Villescon¤; United States: Nervidox 6¤; Nervidox¤; Neuro B-12¤; Neurobion¤; Tia Doce¤; Venezuela: Be-Fosfin; Bedoyecta; Briomet; Deca-Lentermina Complex; Dobetin Compuesto; Mega-Neubion; Miovit; Neubion; Tres-Be; Tres-Be;



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