Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 11-Jun-1997; 07-Jul-1998; 25-Feb-2000; 17-Aug-2001; 04-Mar-2004; 11-Jul-2005; 19-Jul-2006
Synonyms: 9α-Fluoro-16α-methylprednisolone; Deksametasoni; Deksametazonas; Desamethasone; Dexametason; Dexametasona; Dexametasone; Dexametazon; Dexamethason; Dexamethasonum; Hexadecadrol
BAN: Dexamethasone
INN: Dexamethasone [rINN (en)]
INN: Dexametasona [rINN (es)]
INN: Dexaméthasone [rINN (fr)]
INN: Dexamethasonum [rINN (la)]
INN: Дексаметазон [rINN (ru)]
Chemical name: 9α-Fluoro-11β,17α,21-trihydroxy-16α-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
Molecular formula: C22H29FO5 =392.5
CAS: 50-02-2
ATC code: A01AC02; C05AA09; D07AB19; H02AB02; R01AD03; S01BA01; S02BA06; S03BA01
Read code: y00lF [Eye]; y08DT [Endocrine Use]; y02Yw
Chemical Structure of Dexamethasone

Chemical Structure of Dexamethasone

NOTE:

Use in Sport. Dexamethasone may be restricted in certain sports, see Go to Drugs in Sport, as it is considered to be a member of a prohibited group (Glucocorticoids (excluding dermatological preparations)); competitors should check with the appropriate sports authorities.

Pharmacopoeias:

In Chin., Eur. (see Go to European Pharmacopoeia Convention Signatories), Int., Jpn, Pol., US, and Viet.

Ph. Eur. 5.5 (Dexamethasone). A white or almost white, crystalline powder. Practically insoluble in water; sparingly soluble in dehydrated alcohol; slightly soluble in dichloromethane. Protect from light.

USP 29 (Dexamethasone). A white to practically white, odourless, crystalline powder. Practically insoluble in water; sparingly soluble in alcohol, in acetone, in dioxan, and in methyl alcohol; slightly soluble in chloroform; very slightly soluble in ether.

Dexamethasone Acetate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 11-Jun-1997; 07-Jul-1998; 25-Feb-2000; 17-Aug-2001; 04-Mar-2004; 11-Jul-2005; 19-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Deksametasoniasetaatti; Deksametazono acetatas; Dexametasona, acetato de; Dexametasonacetat; Dexametazon-acetát; Dexamethason-acetát; Dexamethasoni Acetas
BAN: Dexamethasone Acetate [BANM]
USAN: Dexamethasone Acetate
INN: Dexamethasone Acetate [rINNM (en)]
INN: Acetato de dexametasona [rINNM (es)]
INN: Dexaméthasone, Acétate de [rINNM (fr)]
INN: Dexamethasoni Acetas [rINNM (la)]
INN: Дексаметазона Ацетат [rINNM (ru)]
Chemical name: Dexamethasone 21-acetate
Molecular formula: C24H31FO6 =434.5
CAS: 1177-87-3 (anhydrous dexamethasone acetate); 55812-90-3 (dexamethasone acetate monohydrate)
ATC code: A01AC02; C05AA09; D07AB19; H02AB02; R01AD03; S01BA01; S02BA06; S03BA01

NOTE:

Use in Sport. Dexamethasone Acetate may be restricted in certain sports, see Go to Drugs in Sport, as it is considered to be a member of a prohibited group (Glucocorticoids (excluding dermatological preparations)); competitors should check with the appropriate sports authorities.

Pharmacopoeias:

In Chin., Eur. (see Go to European Pharmacopoeia Convention Signatories), and Viet.

Int. and US allow the anhydrous form or the monohydrate.

Ph. Eur. 5.5 (Dexamethasone Acetate). A white or almost white, crystalline powder. It shows polymorphism. Practically insoluble in water; freely soluble in alcohol and in acetone; slightly soluble in dichloromethane. Protect from light.

USP 29 (Dexamethasone Acetate). It contains one molecule of water of hydration or is anhydrous. A clear, white to off-white, odourless powder. Practically insoluble in water; freely soluble in acetone, in dioxan, and in methyl alcohol. Store at a temperature of 25 degrees, excursions permitted between 15 degrees and 30 degrees.

Dexamethasone Isonicotinate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 11-Jun-1997; 07-Jul-1998; 25-Feb-2000; 17-Aug-2001; 04-Mar-2004; 11-Jul-2005; 19-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Deksametasoniisonikotinaatti; Dexametasona, isonicotinato de; Dexametasonisonikotinat; Dexamethason-isonikotinát; Dexamethasoni Isonicotinas
BAN: Dexamethasone Isonicotinate [BANM]
INN: Dexamethasone Isonicotinate [rINNM (en)]
INN: Isonicotinato de dexametasona [rINNM (es)]
INN: Dexaméthasone, Isonicotinate de [rINNM (fr)]
INN: Dexamethasoni Isonicotinas [rINNM (la)]
INN: Дексаметазона Изоникотинат [rINNM (ru)]
Chemical name: Dexamethasone 21-isonicotinate
Molecular formula: C28H32FNO6 =497.6
CAS: 2265-64-7
ATC code: A01AC02; C05AA09; D07AB19; H02AB02; R01AD03; S01BA01; S02BA06; S03BA01

NOTE:

Use in Sport. Dexamethasone Isonicotinate may be restricted in certain sports, see Go to Drugs in Sport, as it is considered to be a member of a prohibited group (Glucocorticoids (excluding dermatological preparations)); competitors should check with the appropriate sports authorities.

Pharmacopoeias:

In Eur. (see Go to European Pharmacopoeia Convention Signatories).

Ph. Eur. 5.5 (Dexamethasone Isonicotinate). A white or almost white crystalline powder. Practically insoluble in water; slightly soluble in dehydrated alcohol and in acetone.

Dexamethasone Phosphate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 11-Jun-1997; 07-Jul-1998; 25-Feb-2000; 17-Aug-2001; 04-Mar-2004; 11-Jul-2005; 19-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Dexametasona, fosfato de; Dexamethasone Phosphate
BAN: Dexamethasone Phosphate [BANM]
INN: Dexamethasone Phosphate [rINNM (en)]
INN: Fosfato de dexametasona [rINNM (es)]
INN: Dexaméthasone, Phosphate de [rINNM (fr)]
INN: Dexamethasoni Phosphas [rINNM (la)]
INN: Дексаметазона Фосфат [rINNM (ru)]
Chemical name: Dexamethasone 21-(dihydrogen phosphate)
Molecular formula: C22H30FO8P =472.4
CAS: 312-93-6
ATC code: A01AC02; C05AA09; D07AB19; H02AB02; R01AD03; S01BA01; S02BA06; S03BA01

NOTE:

Use in Sport. Dexamethasone Phosphate may be restricted in certain sports, see Go to Drugs in Sport, as it is considered to be a member of a prohibited group (Glucocorticoids (excluding dermatological preparations)); competitors should check with the appropriate sports authorities.

Dexamethasone Sodium Metasulfobenzoate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 11-Jun-1997; 07-Jul-1998; 25-Feb-2000; 17-Aug-2001; 04-Mar-2004; 11-Jul-2005; 19-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Dexametasona, metasulfobenzoato sódico de; Dexamethasone Sodium Metasulfobenzoate; Dexamethasone Sodium Metasulphobenzoate
BAN: Dexamethasone Sodium Metasulphobenzoate [BANM]
INN: Dexamethasone Sodium Metasulfobenzoate [rINNM (en)]
INN: Metasulfobenzoato sódico de dexametasona [rINNM (es)]
INN: Dexaméthasone Métasulfobenzoate Sodique [rINNM (fr)]
INN: Natrii Dexamethasoni Metasulfobenzoas [rINNM (la)]
INN: Натрий Метасульфобензоат Дексаметазон [rINNM (ru)]
Chemical name: Dexamethasone 21-(sodium m-sulphobenzoate)
Molecular formula: C29H32FNaO9S =598.6
CAS: 3936-02-5
ATC code: A01AC02; C05AA09; D07AB19; H02AB02; R01AD03; S01BA01; S02BA06; S03BA01

NOTE:

Use in Sport. Dexamethasone Sodium Metasulfobenzoate may be restricted in certain sports, see Go to Drugs in Sport, as it is considered to be a member of a prohibited group (Glucocorticoids (excluding dermatological preparations)); competitors should check with the appropriate sports authorities.

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 11-Jun-1997; 07-Jul-1998; 25-Feb-2000; 17-Aug-2001; 04-Mar-2004; 11-Jul-2005; 19-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Deksametasoninatriumfosfaatti; Deksametazono natrio fosfatas; Dexametasona, fosfato sódico de; Dexametasonnatriumfosfat; Dexametazon-nátrium-foszfát; Dexamethason-fosfát sodná sůl; Dexamethasone Phosphate Sodium; Dexamethasoni Natrii Phosphas; Sodium Dexamethasone Phosphate
BAN: Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate [BANM]
INN: Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate [rINNM (en)]
INN: Fosfato sódico de dexametasona [rINNM (es)]
INN: Dexaméthasone, Phosphate Sodique de [rINNM (fr)]
INN: Natrii Dexamethasoni Phosphas [rINNM (la)]
INN: Натрия Дексаметазона Фосфат [rINNM (ru)]
Chemical name: Dexamethasone 21-(disodium orthophosphate)
Molecular formula: C22H28FNa2O8P =516.4
CAS: 2392-39-4
ATC code: A01AC02; C05AA09; D07AB19; H02AB02; R01AD03; S01BA01; S02BA06; S03BA01
Read code: y030N [Musculoskeletal Use]

NOTE:

DSP is a code approved by the BP 2005 for use on single unit doses of eye drops containing dexamethasone sodium phosphate where the individual container may be too small to bear all the appropriate labelling information.

Use in Sport. Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate may be restricted in certain sports, see Go to Drugs in Sport, as it is considered to be a member of a prohibited group (Glucocorticoids (excluding dermatological preparations)); competitors should check with the appropriate sports authorities.

Pharmacopoeias:

In Chin., Eur. (see Go to European Pharmacopoeia Convention Signatories), Int., US, and Viet.

Ph. Eur. 5.5 (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate). A white or almost white, very hygroscopic, powder. It exhibits polymorphism. Freely soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in dichloromethane. A 1% solution in water has a pH of 7.5 to 9.5. Store in airtight containers. Protect from light.

USP 29 (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate). A white or slightly yellow, crystalline powder. Is odourless or has a slight odour of alcohol, and is exceedingly hygroscopic. Soluble 1 in 2 of water; slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in chloroform and in ether; very slightly soluble in dioxan. pH of a 1% solution in water is between 7.5 and 10.5. Store in airtight containers.

Adverse Effects, Treatment, Withdrawal, and Precautions

As for corticosteroids in general (see Go to Adverse Effects of Corticosteroids and their Treatment).

Dexamethasone has little or no effect on sodium and water retention.

When applied topically, particularly to large areas, when the skin is broken, or under occlusive dressings, or when given intranasally, corticosteroids may be absorbed in sufficient amounts to cause systemic effects. Prolonged use of ophthalmic preparations containing corticosteroids has caused raised intra-ocular pressure and reduced visual function.

Effects on the nervous system.

Paraesthesia, usually localised to the perineum, has been associated with the intravenous use of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (see Go to Effects on the nervous system.).

Neonates.

The adverse effects of corticosteroids on the fetus are discussed under Pregnancy on Go to Pregnancy..

Adverse effects noted in premature neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (Go to Bronchopulmonary dysplasia) receiving dexamethasone treatment to enable weaning from assisted ventilation have included hypertension1-4 often accompanied by bradycardia,1,2 gastroduodenal perforation,4-6 ulceration and thinning of the gastric wall,5 development of a catabolic state,4,7 renal calcification,8,9 and transient myocardial hypertrophy.10-13 There is some evidence of a suppressive effect on motor activity and spontaneous movement.14 It has been postulated that neonatal dexamethasone may both increase15 and decrease16 retinopathy of prematurity; its true effect is uncertain.17

There is also a concern that longer term development of the child may be adversely affected.18,19 Although data are scanty, a meta-analysis20 has concluded that postnatal use of corticosteroids to treat or prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia is associated with dramatic increases in the incidence of cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental impairment, and suggested that such use should be abandoned.

Pulsed dosage may reduce the adverse effects but may also reduce efficacy.21

  1. 1. Ohlsson A, Heyman E. Dexamethasone-induced bradycardia. Lancet 1988; ii: 1074. PubMed
  2. 2. Puntis JWL, et al. Dexamethasone-induced bradycardia. Lancet 1988; ii: 1372. PubMed
  3. 3. Marinelli KA, et al. Effects of dexamethasone on blood pressure in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 1997; 130: 594–602. PubMed
  4. 4. Stark AR, et al. Adverse effects of early dexamethasone treatment in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 95–101. PubMed
  5. 5. Ng PC, et al. Gastroduodenal perforation in preterm babies treated with dexamethasone for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 1991; 66: 1164–6. PubMed
  6. 6. Smith H, Sinha S. Gastrointestinal complications associated with dexamethasone treatment. Arch Dis Child 1992; 67: 667. PubMed
  7. 7. Macdonald PD, et al. A catabolic state in dexamethasone treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 1990; 65: 560–1. PubMed
  8. 8. Kamitsuka MD, Peloquin D. Renal calcification after dexamethasone in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lancet 1991; 337: 626. PubMed
  9. 9. Narendra A, et al. Nephrocalcinosis in preterm babies. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2001; 85: F207–F213. PubMed
  10. 10. Werner JC, et al. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with dexamethasone therapy for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 1992; 120: 286–91. PubMed
  11. 11. Bensky AS, et al. Cardiac effects of dexamethasone in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 1996; 97: 818–21. PubMed
  12. 12. Skelton R, et al. Cardiac effects of short course dexamethasone in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 1998; 78: F133–F137. PubMed
  13. 13. Zecca E, et al. Cardiac adverse effects of early dexamethasone treatment in preterm infants: a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 41: 1075–81. PubMed
  14. 14. Bos AF, et al. Qualitative assessment of general movements in high-risk preterm infants with chronic lung-disease requiring dexamethasone therapy. J Pediatr 1998; 132: 300–6. PubMed
  15. 15. Batton DG, et al. Severe retinopathy of prematurity and steroid exposure. Pediatrics 1992; 90: 534–6. PubMed
  16. 16. Sobel DB, Philip AGS. Prolonged dexamethasone therapy reduces the incidence of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity in infants of less than 1 kilogram birth weight with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics 1992; 90: 529–33. PubMed
  17. 17. Ehrenkranz RA. Steroids, chronic lung disease, and retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics 1992; 90: 646–7. PubMed
  18. 18. Greenough A. Gains and losses from dexamethasone for neonatal chronic lung disease. Lancet 1998; 352: 835–6. PubMed
  19. 19. Shinwell ES, et al. Early postnatal dexamethasone treatment and increased incidence of cerebral palsy. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2000; 83: F177–F181. PubMed
  20. 20. Barrington KJ. The adverse neuro-developmental effects of postnatal steroids in the preterm infant: a systematic review of RCTs. BMC Pediatr 2001; 1: 1. PubMed Available at: online (accessed 27/04/04)
  21. 21. Bloomfield FH, et al. Side effects of 2 different dexamethasone courses for preterm infants at risk of chronic lung disease: a randomized trial. J Pediatr 1998; 133: 395–400. PubMed

Interactions

The interactions of corticosteroids in general are described on Go to Interactions of Corticosteroids. Various drugs may interfere with the dexamethasone suppression test.

Antiepileptics.

As described on Go to Corticosteroids., dexamethasone may decrease or increase plasma concentrations of phenytoin. Like other enzyme-inducing drugs, phenytoin also has the potential to increase the metabolism of dexamethasone. There have been reports of false positive dexamethasone suppression tests (see Diagnosis and Testing, Go to Diagnosis and testing.) in patients taking carbamazepine.1

  1. 1. Ma RCW, et al. Carbamazepine and false positive dexamethasone suppression tests for Cushing's syndrome. BMJ 2005; 330: 299–300. PubMed

Pharmacokinetics

For a brief outline of the pharmacokinetics of corticosteroids, see Go to Pharmacokinetics of Corticosteroids.

Dexamethasone is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Its biological half-life in plasma is about 190 minutes. Binding of dexamethasone to plasma proteins is about 77%, which is less than for most other corticosteroids. Up to 65% of a dose is excreted in urine within 24 hours. Clearance in premature neonates is reported to be proportional to gestational age, with a reduced elimination rate in the most premature. It readily crosses the placenta with minimal inactivation.

Uses and Administration

Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid with mainly glucocorticoid activity (Go to Introduction); 750 micrograms of dexamethasone is equivalent in anti-inflammatory activity to about 5 mg of prednisolone.

It has been used, either in the form of the free alcohol or in one of the esterified forms, in the treatment of conditions for which corticosteroid therapy is indicated (Go to Uses and Administration of Corticosteroids), except adrenocortical insufficiency for which hydrocortisone with supplementary fludrocortisone is preferred. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes dexamethasone particularly suitable for treating conditions where water retention would be a disadvantage.

The dose may be expressed in terms of the base, and the following are each equivalent to about 1 mg of dexamethasone:

dexamethasone acetate 1.1 mg

dexamethasone isonicotinate 1.3 mg

dexamethasone phosphate 1.2 mg

dexamethasone sodium metasulfobenzoate 1.5 mg

dexamethasone sodium phosphate 1.3 mg

Dexamethasone sodium phosphate 1.1 mg is equivalent to about 1 mg of dexamethasone phosphate.

For administration by mouth dexamethasone is given in usual doses of 0.5 to 10 mg daily. Dexamethasone is also used by mouth in the dexamethasone suppression tests for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (for further details see under Diagnosis and Testing, Go to Diagnosis and testing.).

For parenteral administration in intensive therapy or in emergencies, the sodium phosphate ester may be given intravenously by injection or infusion or intramuscularly by injection; doses are sometimes expressed in terms of the free alcohol, the phosphate, or the sodium phosphate and confusion has sometimes arisen in the literature because of these variations. Initial doses used, expressed in terms of dexamethasone phosphate, range from about 0.5 to 24 mg daily (about 0.4 to 20 mg of dexamethasone). Intravenous doses equivalent to 2 to 6 mg/kg of dexamethasone phosphate given slowly over a minimum period of several minutes have been suggested for the treatment of severe shock. These high doses may be repeated within 2 to 6 hours and this treatment should be continued only until the patient's condition is stable and usually for no longer than 48 to 72 hours. Alternatively, the initial intravenous injection may be followed by a continuous intravenous infusion of 3 mg/kg per 24 hours.

Dexamethasone sodium phosphate is also used in the treatment of cerebral oedema caused by malignancy. An initial intravenous dose equivalent to 10 mg of dexamethasone phosphate is usually given followed by 4 mg intramuscularly every 6 hours; a response is usually obtained after 12 to 24 hours and dosage may be reduced after 2 to 4 days, and gradually stopped over 5 to 7 days. A much higher dosage schedule has also been suggested for use in acute life-threatening cerebral oedema; initial doses equivalent to 50 mg of dexamethasone phosphate have been given intravenously on the first day together with 8 mg intravenously every 2 hours reduced gradually over 7 to 13 days. A maintenance dose of 2 mg two or three times daily has been used in patients with recurrent or inoperable neoplasms.

The sodium phosphate ester is given by intra-articular, intralesional, or soft-tissue injection. For intra-articular injection doses equivalent to 0.8 to 4 mg of dexamethasone phosphate are used depending upon the size of the joint. For soft-tissue injection doses of 2 to 6 mg are used. Injections are repeated every 3 to 5 days to every 2 to 3 weeks.

Dexamethasone acetate may be given by intramuscular injection in conditions where corticosteroid treatment is indicated but a prompt response of short duration is not required; doses are equivalent to 8 to 16 mg of dexamethasone, repeated, if necessary, every 1 to 3 weeks. The acetate may also be given locally by intra-articular or soft-tissue injection in doses equivalent to 4 to 16 mg of dexamethasone, repeated, if necessary, every 1 to 3 weeks, or by intralesional injection in doses equivalent to 0.8 to 1.6 mg.

For ophthalmic disorders or for topical application in the treatment of various skin disorders, either dexamethasone or its esters may be used; concentrations are often expressed in terms of dexamethasone or dexamethasone phosphate and are commonly 0.05 to 0.1% for eye or ear drops and ointments and 0.1% for topical skin preparations. For recommendations concerning the correct use of corticosteroids on the skin, and a rough guide to the clinical potencies of topical corticosteroids, see Go to Topical application..

For allergic rhinitis and other allergic or inflammatory nasal conditions (Go to Rhinitis), a nasal spray containing dexamethasone isonicotinate is available; the acetate, phosphate, sodium phosphate, and sodium metasulfobenzoate have also been used.

Dexamethasone is given intravenously and orally for the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy (see Go to Nausea and vomiting.).

Other esters of dexamethasone that have occasionally been used include the hemisuccinate, linoleate, palmitate, pivalate, propionate, sodium succinate, tebutate, and valerate.

The phenpropionate and troxundate esters have been used in veterinary medicine.

Dexamethasone-releasing stents may be used to reduce restenosis after coronary artery stent placement.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Dexamethasone was reported to be effective in a patient with benzodiazepine-resistant delirium tremens1 and resolved symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome resistant to other treatments in another 110 patients.2 However, a subsequent small study found no evidence that dexamethasone was effective.3

  1. 1. Fischer DK, et al Efficacy of dexamethasone in benzodiazepine-resistant delirium tremens. Lancet 1988; i: 1340–1. PubMed
  2. 2. Pol S, et al. Dexamethasone for alcohol withdrawal. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 705–6. PubMed
  3. 3. Adinoff B, Pols B. Dexamethasone in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1997; 23: 615–22. PubMed

Amyloidosis.

For mention of the use of dexamethasone in patients with amyloidosis, see Go to Amyloidosis..

Blood disorders.

High-dose pulsed dexamethasone therapy has been found useful in some patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (Go to Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura), although results have been variable in children.

Cerebral oedema.

Corticosteroids, usually dexamethasone, play an important role in the treatment of cerebral oedema in malignancy (see Raised Intracranial Pressure, Go to Raised intracranial pressure), and dexamethasone is advocated for the cerebral oedema associated with high-altitude disorders (see Go to High-altitude disorders.).

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Because of its lack of mineralocorticoid properties, dexamethasone has little advantage in the salt-losing form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (Go to Congenital adrenal hyperplasia), in which mineralocorticoid therapy must be given, and its potency means that dose titration to avoid toxicity can be difficult in infants and children, even with the non-salt-losing form. However, it may be useful in adults with forms of the syndrome that do not require mineralocorticoid replacement. It has also been given antenatally to the mother to prevent virilisation of female fetuses.

Diagnosis and testing.

Cushing's syndrome.

Dexamethasone has been used to differentiate Cushing's disease (adrenal hyperplasia caused by defects of pituitary origin) from other forms of Cushing's syndrome (caused by ectopic ACTH secretion from non-pituitary tumours or by cortisol secretion from adrenal tumours). The dexamethasone suppression test as first proposed1 involved giving dexamethasone in low doses of 500 micrograms four times daily by mouth for 8 doses followed by higher doses of 2 mg four times daily for 8 doses. In the low-dose tests the urinary excretion of cortisol and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids is suppressed in healthy persons but not in patients and in the high-dose tests the excretion is still not suppressed in those with Cushing's syndrome but is partially suppressed in those with Cushing's disease. Because this test usually involves patients being admitted to hospital for urine collection over a number of days and because false-negative responses are reported to be fairly frequent, more rapid and reliable tests have been sought. The low-dose test plus measurement of serum-cortisol concentrations and the excretion of free cortisol in urine over 24 hours has been suggested2 to be a reliable method for screening for Cushing's syndrome. In the UK a single dose of 1 mg of dexamethasone given at night is often used and is considered sufficient to inhibit corticotropin secretion for 24 hours in most subjects. In another variation3 a single dose of dexamethasone 8 mg has been given at night and plasma-cortisol concentrations measured the next day; this test (known as the overnight high-dose dexamethasone suppression test) has again been said to be a practical and reliable alternative for the differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

Further variations in the dexamethasone suppression test have included giving a continuous intravenous infusion of dexamethasone at a rate of 1 mg/hour for 7 hours, with hourly measurement of blood-cortisol concentrations.4 Initial results indicate that this variation produces a lower number of false-positive diagnoses than the test using oral dexamethasone. Other alternatives are a combined low-dose dexamethasone suppression test and corticotropin-releasing hormone (corticorelin) test,5 or combination of a dexamethasone suppression test with a metyrapone test.6

Reviews7,8 of diagnostic tests for Cushing's syndrome have outlined both the advantages and disadvantages of tests using dexamethasone. These suggested that where there is suspicion of Cushing's syndrome, the overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test may be used as part of a range of measures, and that the dexamethasone-corticorelin test may be useful when there are equivocal results from initial screening. In a study to assess the effectiveness of low-dose dexamethasone, some patients were found to suppress plasma or urinary steroid concentrations to levels previously thought to exclude a diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. The authors concluded that these low-dose tests should not be used as the sole criterion for diagnosis, and that a much lower value for serum cortisol should be used to achieve adequate sensitivity.9 In the differentiation of ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent forms of Cushing's syndrome, one review7 suggested that the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test cannot be recommended because of poor specificity.

For further discussion of the various methods used for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and details of its management, see Go to Cushing's syndrome. Various drugs may interfere with the dexamethasone suppression test.

  1. 1. Liddle GW. Tests of pituitary-adrenal suppressibility in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1960; 20: 1539–60. PubMed
  2. 2. Kennedy L, et al. Serum cortisol concentrations during low dose dexamethasone suppression test to screen for Cushing's syndrome. BMJ 1984; 289: 1188–91. PubMed
  3. 3. Tyrrell JB, et al. An overnight high-dose dexamethasone suppression test for rapid differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 180–6. PubMed
  4. 4. Biemond P, et al. Continuous dexamethasone infusion for seven hours in patients with the Cushing syndrome: a superior differential diagnostic test. Ann Intern Med 1990; 112: 738–42. PubMed
  5. 5. Yanovski JA, et al. Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation following low-dose dexamethasone administration: a new test to distinguish Cushing's syndrome from pseudo-Cushing's states. JAMA 1993; 269: 2232–8. PubMed
  6. 6. Avgerinos PC, et al. The metyrapone and dexamethasone suppression tests for the differential diagnosis of the adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing syndrome: a comparison. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121: 318–27. PubMed
  7. 7. Raff H, Findling JW. A physiologic approach to diagnosis of the Cushing syndrome. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 980–91. PubMed
  8. 8. Arnaldi G, et al. Diagnosis and complications of Cushing's syndrome: a consensus statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 5593–5602. PubMed
  9. 9. Findling JW, et al. The low-dose dexamethasone suppression test: a reevaluation in patients with Cushing's syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 1222–6. PubMed

Depression.

The Health and Public Policy Committee of the American College of Physicians noted that the dexamethasone suppression test for depression (Go to Depression) was based on the premise that endogenously depressed patients have shown pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities but had been found to have a low sensitivity for detecting depression. It was of unproven value and was not recommended as a screening test.1 Nonetheless, interest remains; studies2-6 have shown conflicting results.

  1. 1. Young M, Schwartz JS. The dexamethasone suppression test for the detection, diagnosis, and management of depression. Ann Intern Med 1984; 100: 307–8. PubMed
  2. 2. Coryell W. DST abnormality as a predictor of course in major depression. J Affect Disord 1990; 19: 163–9. PubMed
  3. 3. Plłocka-Lewandowska M, et al. Dexamethasone suppression test and suicide attempts in schizophrenic patients. Eur Psychiatry 2001; 16: 428–31. PubMed
  4. 4. Coryell W, Schlesser M. The dexamethasone suppression test and suicide prediction. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 748–53. PubMed
  5. 5. Black DW, et al. The relationship between DST results and suicidal behavior. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2002; 14: 83–8. PubMed
  6. 6. Yerevanian BI, et al. The dexamethasone suppression test as a predictor of suicidal behavior in unipolar depression. J Affect Disord 2004; 83: 103–8. PubMed

High-altitude disorders.

Dexamethasone is effective in the prevention of symptoms of acute mountain sickness (Go to High-altitude disorders), for which mild cerebral oedema may be a contributing factor, but it is not generally considered suitable for routine prophylaxis because of concern about its adverse effects. In the treatment of acute severe mountain sickness, which may involve the development of pulmonary and cerebral oedema, the mandatory treatment is immediate descent, and drug therapy is primarily adjunctive, to facilitate descent or maintain the patient until descent is possible. Under these circumstances dexamethasone and oxygen form the mainstays of treatment.

References.

  1. 1. Ferrazzini G, et al. Successful treatment of acute mountain sickness with dexamethasone. BMJ 1987; 294: 1380–2. PubMed
  2. 2. Ellsworth AJ, et al. A randomized trial of dexamethasone and acetazolamide for acute mountain sickness prophylaxis. Am J Med 1987; 83: 1024–30. PubMed
  3. 3. Montgomery AB, et al. Effects of dexamethasone on the incidence of acute mountain sickness at two intermediate altitudes. JAMA 1989; 261: 734–6. PubMed
  4. 4. Levine BD, et al. Dexamethasone in the treatment of acute mountain sickness. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 1707–13. PubMed
  5. 5. Keller H-R, et al. Simulated descent v dexamethasone in treatment of acute mountain sickness: a randomised trial. BMJ 1995; 310: 1232–5. PubMed
  6. 6. Dumont L, et al. Efficacy and harm of pharmacological prevention of acute mountain sickness: quantitative systematic review. BMJ 2000; 321: 267–72. PubMed

Hirsutism.

Unbound testosterone concentrations were consistently elevated in 32 hirsute women; when concentrations were suppressed to normal by dexamethasone 0.5 to 1 mg at night hirsutism was generally improved or ceased to progress after 8 to 10 months of treatment.1 Other studies have shown only a modest improvement2 or no improvement at all3 in hirsutism when treated with dexamethasone. Addition of dexamethasone to anti-androgen therapy appeared to prolong the duration of remission in a later study.4

The mainstay of drug treatment for hirsutism tends to be an anti-androgen such as cyproterone or spironolactone (Go to Hirsutism.). Although low dose corticosteroids can suppress adrenal androgen production, careful consideration of the risks and benefits is advisable, especially since therapy for hirsutism may have to be given long-term.

  1. 1. Paulson JD, et al Free testosterone concentration in serum: elevation is the hallmark of hirsutism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1977; 128: 851–7. PubMed
  2. 2. Carmina E, Lobo RA. Peripheral androgen blockade versus glandular androgen suppression in the treatment of hirsutism. Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78: 845. PubMed
  3. 3. Rittmaster RS, Thompson DL. Effect of leuprolide and dexamethasone on hair growth and hormone levels in hirsute women: the relative importance of the ovary and the adrenal in the pathogenesis of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990; 70: 1096–1102. PubMed
  4. 4. Carmina E, Lobo RA. The addition of dexamethasone to antiandrogen therapy for hirsutism prolongs the duration of remission. Fertil Steril 1998; 69: 1075–9. PubMed

Malaria.

Corticosteroids, especially dexamethasone, have been used in cerebral malaria (Go to Malaria) in the belief that their anti-inflammatory effect would reduce cerebral oedema. However, studies have shown that cerebral oedema does not play a significant role in the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria and, indeed, double-blind studies using both moderate doses (2 mg/kg) and high doses (11 mg/kg) of dexamethasone intravenously over 48 hours found no reduction in death rates. Thus it is now considered that corticosteroids have no place in the treatment of cerebral malaria.1

  1. 1. Prasad K, Garner P. Steroids for treating cerebral malaria. Available in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Issue 3. Chichester: John Wiley; 1999 (accessed 12/05/05). PubMed

Malignant neoplasms.

Dexamethasone has been used in some regimens for the treatment of malignancy, for example in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Go to Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.) and multiple myeloma (Go to Plasma cell neoplasms.).

Meningitis.

The role of corticosteroids in the adjuvant treatment of bacterial meningitis (Go to Meningitis) has been the subject of considerable debate. Studies have shown conflicting results.1-3 However, a systematic review4 concluded that there was evidence of benefit, particularly in reducing deafness in children, and in reducing mortality in adults. It has been suggested4 that a 4-day regimen of dexamethasone be given, preferably before or with the first dose of antibacterial.

  1. 1. Molyneux EM, et al. Dexamethasone treatment in childhood bacterial meningitis in Malawi: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 211–18. PubMed
  2. 2. de Gans J, van de Beek D. Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1549–56. PubMed
  3. 3. Thwaites GE, et al. Dexamethasone for the treatment of tuberculous meningitis in adolescents and adults. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1741–51. PubMed
  4. 4. van de Beek D, et al. Corticosteroids for acute bacterial meningitis. Available in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Issue 3. Chichester: John Wiley; 2003 (accessed 05/05/05). PubMed

Nausea and vomiting.

Dexamethasone has antiemetic properties, particularly against acute and delayed vomiting induced by cancer chemotherapy1 (Go to Nausea and vomiting). It may be used alone for prevention of acute symptoms associated with moderately-emetogenic treatment and is combined with a 5-HT3 antagonist for highly-emetogenic treatment. Typical dosage regimens have been dexamethasone 4 to 8 mg by mouth immediately before moderately-emetogenic chemotherapy and 20 mg by intravenous injection for more severely emetogenic chemotherapy. Dexamethasone is the drug of choice for prevention of delayed symptoms, given alone or with other antiemetics. A typical dose is 8 mg twice daily by mouth for 2 to 4 days. Dexamethasone is also effective for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting,2 and may be used to manage nausea and vomiting in palliative care.

  1. 1. Ioannidis JPA, et al. Contribution of dexamethasone to control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis of randomized evidence. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 3409–22. PubMed
  2. 2. Henzi I, et al. Dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg 2000; 90: 186–94. PubMed

Opportunistic mycobacterial infections.

Dexamethasone in doses of 1 to 4 mg daily was associated with weight gain, reduction in fever, and an improved sense of well-being in 5 patients with HIV and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection.1 Combination antimycobacterial therapy for opportunistic mycobacterial infections (Go to Opportunistic mycobacterial infections) was also given. Similar results have been noted by others.2

  1. 1. Wormser GP, et al. Low-dose dexamethasone as adjunctive therapy for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infections in AIDS patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994; 38: 2215–17. PubMed
  2. 2. Dorman SE, et al. Adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for patients whose treatment for disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection has failed. Clin Infect Dis 1998; 26: 682–6. PubMed

Respiratory disorders.

Corticosteroids such as dexamethasone have been given antenatally to mothers at risk of premature delivery in order to hasten fetal lung maturation and help prevent neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (Go to Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (Go to Bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Neonatal dexamethasone has been reported to improve pulmonary outcome and assist weaning from mechanical ventilation in infants that have developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Dexamethasone is also one of the drugs of choice for the management of severe croup (see Go to Croup). However, as with other corticosteroids (Go to Bronchiolitis) it appears to be of little value in bronchiolitis.1,2

  1. 1. Roosevelt G, et al. Dexamethasone in bronchiolitis: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1996; 348: 292–5. PubMed
  2. 2. Klassen TP, et al. Dexamethasone in salbutamol-treated inpatients with acute bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 1997; 130: 191–6. PubMed

Retinopathy of prematurity.

For a suggestion that antenatal dexamethasone might be helpful in the prophylaxis of retinopathy of prematurity, see Go to Retinopathy of prematurity.. For mention of the uncertain effect of neonatal dexamethasone on retinopathy of prematurity, see under Adverse Effects Go to Neonates..

Preparations

Single-ingredient Preparations

The symbol ¤ denotes a preparation which is discontinued or no longer actively marketed.

Argentina: Decadron; Degabina; Dexafarm¤; Dexalergin; Dexameral; Dexatotal; Duo Decadron; Fadametasona¤; Gotabiotic D; Isopto Maxidex; Lormine; Nexadron; Rupedex; Sedesterol; Trofinan; Australia: Decadron¤; Dexmethsone; Maxidex; Oradexon¤; Austria: Decadron¤; Dexabene; Fortecortin; Belgium: Aacidexam; Decadron¤; Dexa-Sol¤; Maxidex; Oradexon; Brazil: Cortidex; Cortitop; Decadron; Decadronal; Deflaren; Dexacilin; Dexaden; Dexadermil; Dexaflan; Dexagreen; Dexameson; Dexametax; Dexametonal; Dexametrat; Dexamex; Dexaminor; Dexanil; Dexason; Dexazen; Dexazona; Dexmene; Dextasona¤; Maxidex; Metaxon; Minidex; Neodex; Netazon; Topidexa; Uni Dexa; Canada: Ak-Dex¤; Decadron¤; Deronil¤; Dexasone; Diodex¤; Hexadrol¤; Maxidex; Ocudex¤; Oradexon¤; RO-Dexsone¤; Spersadex¤; Chile: Maxidex; Oradexon; Czech Republic: Baycuten; Dexa; Dexaltin; Dexamed; Dexapos; Dexason; Dexona; Fortecortin; Denmark: Decadron; Maxidex; Finland: Decadron¤; Kaarmepakkaus; Oftan Dexa; Oradexon; France: Auxisone¤; Cebedex¤; Decadron¤; Dectancyl; Desocort; Dexane¤; Maxidex; Soludecadron¤; Germany: afpred-DEXA; Anemul mono¤; Auxiloson¤; Cortidexason; Cortisumman¤; Decadron Phosphat¤; Decadron¤; Dexa in der Ophtiole¤; Dexa Loscon mono; Dexa-Allvoran; Dexa-Brachialin N¤; dexa-clinit; Dexa-Effekton; Dexa-Injekt¤; Dexa-ratiopharm; Dexa-Rhinospray Mono; Dexa-sine; Dexa; Dexabene; DexaEDO; Dexaflam¤; Dexaflam; Dexagalen; Dexagel; Dexahexal; Dexamed¤; Dexamonozon N¤; Dexamonozon; Dexapos; Fortecortin; Isopto Dex; Lipotalon; Lokalison-F¤; Lokalison-universale¤; Predni-F-Tablinen¤; Sokaral¤; Solupen N; Solutio Cordes Dexa N; Spersadex; Spondy-Dexa¤; Totocortin; Tuttozem N¤; Greece: Decadron; Dexacollyre; Iriniozol; Maxidex; Oradexon; Soldesanil; Thilodexine; Thiloxedine¤; Hong Kong: Decadron¤; Dexalocal¤; Dexamed; Dexasone; Dexmethsone; Limethason¤; Maxidex; Spersadex¤; Hungary: Dexa; Maxidex; Oradexon; India: Decdan; Dexacip; Dexasone; Dexona; Millicortenol; Wymesone; Ireland: Decadron; Maxidex; Israel: Dexacort; Maxidex; Sterodex; Italy: Decadron; Decofluor¤; Dermadex; Desalark¤; Deseronil¤; Etacortilen; Firmalone¤; Luxazone; Megacort; Situalin¤; Soldesam; Visumetazone; Japan: Limethason; Methaderm; Voalla¤; Malaysia: Cortidax¤; Decadron¤; Decan; Dexalone; Dexaltin; Dexasone; Limethason; Maxidex; Mexico: Adrecort; Alin; Azona; Beamoken A¤; Cortidex; Cryometasona; Decadron; Decadronal; Decorex; Dexagrin; Dexal; Dexamilan; Dexatam¤; Dexicar; Dexona; Dibasona; Indarzona-N; Lergosin; Maxidex; Metax; Mexona¤; Migradexan; Pardex; Reusan; Taprodex; Taxyl; Netherlands: Decadron Depot¤; Decadron¤; Dexa-POS; Maxidex¤; Oradexon; Norway: Decadron; Isopto Maxidex; Spersadex; New Zealand: Decadron¤; Maxidex; Portugal: Decadron; Dexaval; Oradexon¤; Ronic; Russia: Detametazon (Детаметажон); Dexamed (Дексамед); Dexaven (Дексавен); Dexona-D (Дексона Д); Maxidex (Максидекс); Oftan Dexamethason (Офтан Дексаметазон); South Africa: Decadron; Decasone; Maxidex; Oradexon¤; Spersadex; Singapore: Dexaltin; Dexamed; Dexasone; Erladexone¤; Limethason¤; Maxidex; Mexasone¤; Spain: Artrosone¤; Dalamon Inyectable; Decadran¤; Dexamiso¤; Dexaplast¤; Fortecortin; Fosfodexa¤; Hemidexa¤; Linoderm¤; Maxidex; Solone¤; Sweden: Decadron; Dexacortal; Isopto Maxidex; Opnol; Switzerland: Decadron; Dexa-Helvacort¤; Dexacortin-K; Dexacortin; Dexalocal; Fortecortin; Maxidex; Mephamesone; Millicortene¤; Oradexon¤; Spersadex; Thailand: B Dexol; Decadron; Dexa ANB; Dexa-P¤; Dexa; Dexacortisone¤; Dexaltin; Dexano; Dexasone; Dexon; Dexthasol; Dexton; Limethason¤; Oradexon; United Kingdom: Decadron¤; Dexsol; Maxidex; Oradexon¤; United States: Aeroseb-Dex; Ak-Dex¤; Alba Dex¤; Baldex¤; Dalalone; Decaderm in Estergel¤; Decadron; Decaject¤; Decaspray; Dexacort¤; Dexameth¤; Dexasone; Dexone; DexPak; Hexadrol; Maxidex; Solurex¤; Venezuela: Decadron; Decadron; Decalona; Decobel; Dexacort; Maradex; Metalexina;

Multi-ingredient Preparations

The symbol ¤ denotes a preparation which is discontinued or no longer actively marketed.

Argentina: Alergi; Belbar; Bio Cabal¤; Bioptic DX; Biotaer Ultrason Nebulizable¤; Ciloxadex; Ciprocort; Cortaler Novo¤; Decadron con Ciprofloxina; Decadron con Neomicina; Decadron con Tobramicina; Dexa Aminofilin; Dexa Teosona; Dexa-Rhinospray N; Dexabion; Dexabion; Dexafurazon; Dexalergin; Dexalergin; Dexalergin; Dexamytrex; Dexaprof D; Dexatopic; Empecid Cort; Factioneye; Flexicamin B12; Flogiatrin B12; Fluoropoen; Fotadex; Gotabiotic F; Isoptomax; Klonamicin Compuesto; Larsen; Linfol; Mefenix Relax¤; Melasmax; Naxo TV; Neodexa Plus; Neoftalm Dexa; Neolag; Neosona; Nexadron Compuesto; Nexadron Compuesto; Nipiol¤; Paraflex Plus; Polioftal; Proetztotal; Provisual Compuesto; Quidex; Radina Dex; Sincerum Biotic L; Sincerum Biotic; Sindrolen¤; Solocalm Plus; Solocalm Plus; Tobrabiotic D; Tobracort; Tobradex; Tobragan D; Toflamixina Plus; Vixidone T¤; Vixidone; Xao-Dex¤; Australia: Otodex; Sofradex; Tobispray¤; Austria: Ambene; Clinit¤; Decadron mit Neomycin¤; Dexa-Rhinospray¤; Dexagenta; Dexasalyl; Doxiproct mit Dexamethason¤; Endomethazone¤; Multodrin; Rheumesser; Tobradex; Uromont; Belgium: De Icin; De Icol; Decadron avec Neomycine¤; Dexa-Rhinospray; Dexa-Sol Soframycine¤; Maxitrol; Neodexon¤; Percutalgine; Polaronil¤; Polydexa; Tobradex; Brazil: Baycuten; Biamotil-D; Cianotrat-Dexa; Cilodex; Cylocort; Decadron Colirio com Neomicina; Decadron Nasal; Dermazon¤; Dermogen¤; Dexa-Citoneurin; Dexa-Cronobe; Dexa-Neuriberi; Dexa-Vastrictol¤; Dexacilin; Dexaclor; Dexacloran¤; Dexacobal; Dexacort; Dexador; Dexadoze; Dexafenicol; Dexagil; Dexalgen; Dexamytrex; Dexaneurin; Dexanevral; Dexanil; Dexavison; Dexazona; Duo-Decadron; Emistin; Fenidex; Gynax-N; Hidrocin; Maxiflox D; Maxitrol; Metcort; Neocortin; Neodex; Nepodex; Oftcor¤; Orlamix¤; Otofenicol-D; Rinosbon; Tobracin D; Tobracort; Tobradex; Trivagel N; Vagitrin-N; Vibetrat Dexa¤; Vitatonus Dexa; Canada: Dioptrol¤; Maxitrol; NeoDecadron¤; Sofracort; Tobradex; Chile: Baycuten; Cilodex; Ciprodex; Dexagin; Grifoftal-D; Maxitrol; Poentobral Plus; Spersadex Comp; Telugren Plus; Tobradex; Tobragan D; Tobrin-D; Todexona; Tribesona; Xolof D; Czech Republic: Dexa-Gentamicin; Doxiproct Plus; Maxitrol; Otobacid N; Sofradex; Spersadex Compositum; Tobradex; Denmark: Decadron med Neomycin; Sofradex; Spersadex Comp; Finland: Dexatopic¤; Maxitrol; Oftan Dexa-Chlora; Otomize¤; Sofradex; France: Auricularum; Cebedexacol; Chibro-Cadron; Corticetine; Dexaderme Kefrane¤; Dexagrane; Frakidex; Framyxone; Maxidrol; Optidex¤; Percutalgine; Pimafucort¤; Polydexa a la Phenylephrine¤; Polydexa; Ster-Dex; Therops¤; Tobradex; Germany: afpred forte tagdragees¤; Aknichthol Dexa¤; Aquapred¤; Baycuten¤; Chibro-Cadron¤; Corti Biciron N; Cortidexason comp; Cortidexason-S¤; Corto-Tavegil¤; Dexa Biciron; Dexa Loscon¤; Dexa Polyspectran; Dexa-Biofenicol-N¤; Dexa-Bronchisan¤; Dexa-Gentamicin; Dexa-Phlogont L¤; Dexa-Rhinospray N¤; Dexa-Siozwo; Dexa-Turipol¤; Dexabiotan in der Ophtiole¤; Dexacrinin¤; Dexamed¤; Dexamytrex; Dexasalyl¤; Dexatopic¤; Dispadex comp; DoloTendin¤; Duodexa N¤; Ell-Cranell dexa; Ell-Cranell¤; Incut¤; Isopto Max; Lokalison-antimikrobiell Creme N; Magopsor¤; Millicorten-Vioform¤; Nasicortin¤; Nystalocal; Otobacid N; Otriven-Millicorten¤; Rheumasit¤; Rhinoguttae Dexamethasoni cum Naphazolino¤; Saocin-D¤; Solupen-D¤; Spersadex Comp; Spersadexolin; Supertendin 2000 N¤; Supertendin 3000¤; Supertendin; Ultra-Demoplas¤; Uro-Stilloson; Greece: Afacort; Antilerg-F¤; Chlorapred; Dexa-Rhinaspray-N; Dexamycin; Dexamytrex; Dispersadron-C; Ekzegamma¤; Eyebrex-Dexa¤; Fluoscin¤; Genefacort¤; Gentadex; Isopto Maxitrol¤; Lofoto; Nezefib; O-Biotic; Otocort; Otomize; Saocin-D; Spersadexoline¤; Thilomicine Dex; Tobradex; Urecortin; Hong Kong: Chloram-D; Colircusi Gentadexa¤; Decadron with Neomycin¤; Dexa-Polyspectran¤; Dexasalyl¤; Dexoph; Dextracin; Frakidex; Maxitrol; Neo-Dex (Improved); Oftalmolosa Cusi de Icol¤; Parasone; Polydexa; Sofradex; Spersadex Comp¤; Spersadexoline¤; Tobradex; Trabit¤; Hungary: Doxiproct Plus; Spersadex Comp; Tobradex; India: Ciplox D; Decdan-N; Dexona Eye/Ear; Dexosyn Plus; Dexosyn-C; Dexosyn-N; Gentacip D; Millicorten-Vioform; Mycidex; Obrasone; Ocupol-D; Ocutob-D; Oflox D; Pyrimon; Sofracort; Sofradex-F; Sofradex; Tobazon DM; Ireland: Dexa-Rhinaspray Duo; Dexa-Rhinaspray¤; Maxitrol; Otomize; Sofradex; Israel: Adexone; Auricularum; Desoren; Dethamycin; Dethaphrine; Dex-Otic; Dexamycin; Dexefrin; Maxitrol; Otomize¤; Polycutan; Tarocidin D; Tevacutan; Italy: Antimicotico¤; Aurizone¤; Cloradex; Corti-Arscolloid; Dermadex Chinolinico¤; Dermadex Neomicina¤; Desagamma K¤; Desalfa¤; Desalfa; Desalfa; Desalfa; Desalfa; Desamix Effe; Desamix-Neomicina; Dexatopic¤; Dexoline; Doxiproct; Eta Biocortilen VC; Eta Biocortilen; Fluorobioptal¤; Fluorocortisol K¤; Kanaderm¤; Kanazone¤; Lasoproct¤; Luxazone Eparina; Meclocil Desa¤; Nasicortin¤; Neo Cortofen; Neo-Cortofen "Antrax"¤; Neodes¤; Rinedrone¤; Situalin Antibiotico¤; Tobradex; Uretral¤; Visumetazone Antistaminico; Visumetazone Decongestionante; Malaysia: Baycuten N; De Icol; Dexa-Gentamicin; Dexamytrex¤; Dextracin; Gentadexa; Maxitrol; Neo-Deca; Sofradex; Spersadex Comp; Spersadexoline; Tobradex; Mexico: Alin Nasal; Alin Oftalmico; Baycuten N; Bexine; Biodexan; Butisel; Cilodex; Decadron con Neomicina¤; Decadron con Nistatina; Dexabion; Dexadutil; Dexafrin; Dexamicin; Dexne; Dexne; Dexne; Dexsul; Dextone; Dibutasona; Dinill-D; Exafenil; Gotadex; Kodakon¤; Lergosin A; Levodexan; Levofenil; Maxitrol; Mildex; Neobacigrin; Neuralin; Nispil; Obrydex; Polideltaxin NF; Rinidyl DN; Soldrin; Tiamidexal; Timpacil; Tobradex; Trazidex; UV IX; Vengesic; Zolidime; Netherlands: Chibrocadron¤; Decadron met neomycine¤; Dexagenta-POS; Dexamytrex; Dexatopic; Maxitrol; Sofradex; Tobradex; Norway: Maxitrol; Sofradex; Spersadex med kloramfenikol; New Zealand: Maxitrol; Sofradex; Tobradex; Portugal: Baycuten; Decadron com Neomicina¤; Dexamytrex; Dexaval A; Dexaval N; Dexaval O; Dexaval V; Frakidex; Gentadexa; Polydexa; Russia: Ambene (Амбене); Dexona (Дексона); Maxitrol (Макситрол); Percutalgine (Перкуталжин); Polydexa (Полидекса); Polydexa with Phenylephrine (Полидекса С Фенилефрином); Tobradex (Тобрадекс); South Africa: Covomycin-D; Maxitrol; Sofradex; Spersadex Comp; Spersadexoline; Tobradex; Singapore: Dexamytrex; Dextracin; Frakidex; Maxitrol; Neo-Deca¤; Neo-Dex (Improved)¤; Polydexa; Sofradex; Spersadex Comp¤; Spersadexoline; Tobradex; Spain: Amplidermis; Aqua Dexa¤; Broncoformo Muco Dexa; Cloran Hemidex; Clordexap¤; Cortison Chemicetina¤; Cresophene; Cusispray¤; Dalamon¤; Decadran Neomicina¤; Dexa Antib¤; Dexa Const¤; Dexa Fenic¤; Dexa Fenicol¤; Dexa Tavegil; Dexa Vasoc¤; Dexabronchisan¤; Dexafenicol¤; Dexam Constric¤; Dexamida¤; Dexatopic¤; Gentadexa; Godafilin Dexamet¤; Hem Anth; Hongosan; Icol; Inzitan; Linfospray¤; Liquipom Dexa Antib; Liquipom Dexa Const¤; Liquipom Dexamida¤; Maxitrol; Neodexa; Neodexaplast¤; Neurocatavin Dexa¤; Neurodavur Plus; Neurosido¤; Oftalmol Dexa¤; Oftalmotrim Dexa¤; Otix; Oto Vitna¤; Ozopulmin Antiasmatico¤; Percutalin¤; Phonal; Rectolmin Bronquial¤; Resorborina; Rino Dexa; Rino Vitna¤; Rinoblanco Dexa Antibio¤; Sabanotropico; Sedionbel¤; Sedofarin; Talkosona¤; Tobradex; Vaso Dexa¤; Vasodexa; Wasserdermina¤; Sweden: Decadron cum neomycin; Sofradex¤; Switzerland: Antikeloides Creme; Chronocorte; Clinit¤; Corticetine¤; Cresophene; Decadron a la neomycine¤; Dexa Loscon¤; Dexa-Rhinospray¤; Dexalocal-F; Dexasalyl; Dexolan; Doxiproct Plus; Frakidex; Maxitrol; Nystalocal; Otospray¤; Pigmanorm; Polydexa¤; Polydexa; Pulpomixine¤; Sebo-Psor; Sofradex; Spersadex Comp; Spersadexoline; Tobradex; Thailand: Archidex; Cadexcin-N; Decadron with Neomycin¤; Dex-Otic¤; Dexacin; Dexamytrex; Dexasil; Dexoph; Dexylin; Eyedex; Maxitrol; Neo-Optal; Neodex; Opsardex¤; Percutalgine¤; Sofradex; Spersadexoline; Tobradex; Trabit; Trabit; United Kingdom: Dexa-Rhinaspray Duo; Dexa-Rhinaspray¤; Maxitrol; Otomize; Sofradex; Tobradex; United States: Ak-Neo-Dex; Ak-Trol¤; Ciprodex; Dexacidin¤; Dexacine¤; Dexasporin; Infectrol¤; Maxitrol; Neo-Dexair¤; Neo-Dexameth; NeoDecadron; Neodexasone; Neopolydex; Ocu-Trol; Poly-Dex; Storz-N-D¤; Storz-N-P-D¤; Tobradex; Venezuela: Baycuten N; Cipromet; Cyprodex; Decadron; Decaven; Deicol; Dexaneol; Dexapostafen; Gentidexa; Kanasone; Maxicort; Maxitrol; Poentobral Plus; Poli-Otico; Tobradex; Todex;


  • Neng  2012-08-11

    I also noticed the new prieevw version of pubmed. The major changes I found was the hidden pull-down menus (former ones larger) and much cleaner interface. I like the changes but not used to it yet.Good catch! reply

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