Bromelains

Bromelains

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 16-Mar-1998; 01-Sep-1998; 09-Apr-2001; 08-Nov-2001; 05-Sep-2003; 25-Jul-2006
Synonyms: Bromelaína; Bromelaiinit; Bromelaina; Bromelainer; Bromelins; Plant Protease Concentrate
BAN: Bromelains
USAN: Bromelains
INN: Bromelains [rINN (en)]
INN: Bromelaína [rINN (es)]
INN: Bromélaïones [rINN (fr)]
INN: Bromelaina [rINN (la)]
INN: Бромелаины [rINN (ru)]
CAS: 9001-00-7
ATC code: B06AA11
Read code: y00jE

Units

One Rorer unit of protease activity has been defined as that amount of enzyme which hydrolyses a standardised casein substrate at pH 7 and 25 degrees so as to cause an increase in absorbance of 0.00001 per minute at 280 nm. FIP units are also defined in terms of rate of hydrolysis of bromelain activity of a casein preparation under standard conditions.

Activity has also been described in terms of milk-clotting units.

Adverse Effects

Bromelains may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Metrorrhagia and menorrhagia have occasionally occurred. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported and have included skin reactions and asthma.

Effects on the respiratory system.

Bronchial asthma was experienced by 2 patients after exposure to bromelains.1 Of 6 workers sensitised to papain, 5 showed positive skin tests to bromelains and 2 of them also showed immediate asthmatic reactions after bronchial challenge with bromelains.2

  1. 1. Galleguillos F, Rodriguez JC. Asthma caused by bromelin inhalation. Clin Allergy 1978; 8: 21–4. PubMed
  2. 2. Baur X, Fruhmann G. Allergic reactions, including asthma, to the pineapple protease bromelain following occupational exposure. Clin Allergy 1979; 9: 443–50. PubMed

Precautions

Bromelains should be given with care to patients with coagulation disorders or with severe hepatic or renal impairment.

Uses and Administration

Bromelains are a concentrate of proteolytic enzymes derived from the pineapple plant, Ananas comosus (A. sativus) (Bromeliaceae). They are used as an adjunct in the treatment of soft-tissue inflammation and oedema associated with trauma and surgery. Bromelains have also been given as an aid to digestion, and used in the treatment of partial deep dermal and full thickness burns.

References.

  1. 1. Kane S, Goldberg MJ. Use of bromelain for mild ulcerative colitis. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 680. PubMed
  2. 2. Maurer HR. Bromelain: biochemistry, pharmacology and medical use. Cell Mol Life Sci 2001; 58: 1234–45. PubMed

Preparations

Single-ingredient Preparations

The symbol ¤ denotes a preparation which is discontinued or no longer actively marketed.

Belgium: Extranase¤; Chile: Ananase Forte; France: Extranase; Germany: dontisanin; Mucozym; Proteozym; Traumanase; Hong Kong: Ananase¤; Ireland: Ananase¤; Italy: Ananase; Proteolis¤; Rogorin¤; Portugal: Ananase; South Africa: Ananase¤; Switzerland: Traumanase; United Kingdom: Ananase¤; United States: Dayto Anase¤; Venezuela: Ananase;



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