Ammonium Acetate

Ammonium Acetate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 13-Oct-1997; 22-Jun-1998; 07-Apr-2000; 01-Nov-2001; 01-Jul-2004; 05-Jul-2006; (last modified: 24-Jul-2006)
Molecular formula: CH3CO2NH4 =77.08
CAS: 631-61-8 (ammonium acetate); 8013-61-4 (ammonium acetate solution)
Pharmacopoeias:

Br. includes Strong Ammonium Acetate Solution.

Ammonium Bicarbonate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 13-Oct-1997; 23-Jun-1998; 07-Apr-2000; 01-Nov-2001; 01-Jul-2004; 05-Jul-2006; (last modified: 24-Jul-2006)
Synonyms: Ammónium-hidrogén-karbonát; Ammonii Hydrogenocarbonas; Ammoniumvätekarbonat; Ammoniumvetykarbonaatti; Amonio, bicarbonato de; Amonio-vandenilio karbonatas; E503; Hydrogenuhličitan amonný
BAN: Ammonium Bicarbonate
Chemical name: Ammonium hydrogen carbonate
Molecular formula: NH4HCO3 =79.06
CAS: 1066-33-7
Pharmacopoeias:

In Eur. (see Go to European Pharmacopoeia Convention Signatories).

Ph. Eur. 5.5 (Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate; Ammonium Bicarbonate BP 2005). A fine, white, slightly hygroscopic, crystalline powder or white crystals. It volatilises rapidly at 60 degrees; volatilisation takes place slowly at ambient temperatures if slightly moist. It is in a state of equilibrium with ammonium carbamate. Freely soluble in water; practically insoluble in alcohol. Store in airtight containers.

The BP 2005 directs that when Ammonium Carbonate is prescribed or demanded Ammonium Bicarbonate shall be dispensed or supplied.

Ammonium Carbonate

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 13-Oct-1997; 23-Jun-1998; 07-Apr-2000; 01-Nov-2001; 01-Jul-2004; 05-Jul-2006; (last modified: 24-Jul-2006)
Synonyms: Carbonato de Amonio; Ammonium Carbonate; Amonio, carbonato de; E503
CAS: 8000-73-5
Pharmacopoeias:

In Fr. Also in USNF.

BP 2005. The BP directs that Ammonium Bicarbonate shall be dispensed or supplied when Ammonium Carbonate is prescribed or demanded.

USNF 24 (Ammonium Carbonate). A white powder, or hard, white or translucent masses having a strong odour of ammonia, without empyreuma. It consists of ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium carbamate, in varying proportions. It yields 30 to 34% of NH3. On exposure to air it loses ammonia and carbon dioxide, becoming opaque, and is finally converted into friable porous lumps or a white powder of ammonium bicarbonate. Soluble 1 in 4 of water. It is decomposed by hot water. Its solutions are alkaline to litmus. Store in airtight containers at a temperature not exceeding 30 degrees. Protect from light.

Ammonium Chloride

Drug Nomenclature

Date of monograph revision: 13-Oct-1997; 23-Jun-1998; 07-Apr-2000; 01-Nov-2001; 01-Jul-2004; 05-Jul-2006; (last modified: 24-Jul-2006)
Synonyms: 510; Ammónium-klorid; Ammonii Chloridum; Ammonium Chloratum; Ammonium Chloride; Ammoniumklorid; Ammoniumkloridi; Amonio chloridas; Amonio, cloruro de; Chlorid amonný; Cloruro de Amonio; Muriate of Ammonia; Sal Ammoniac
Molecular formula: NH4Cl =53.49
CAS: 12125-02-9
ATC code: B05XA04; G04BA01
Pharmacopoeias:

In Chin., Eur. (see Go to European Pharmacopoeia Convention Signatories), Pol., US, and Viet.

Ph. Eur. 5.5 (Ammonium Chloride). A white, crystalline powder or colourless crystals. Freely soluble in water.

USP 29 (Ammonium Chloride). Colourless crystals or white, fine or course, crystalline powder. Is somewhat hygroscopic. Freely soluble in water and in glycerol, and even more so in boiling water; sparingly soluble in alcohol. pH of a 5% solution in water is between 4.6 and 6.0. Store in airtight containers.

Adverse Effects and Treatment

Ammonium salts are irritant to the gastric mucosa and may produce nausea and vomiting particularly in large doses. Large doses of ammonium chloride may cause a profound acidosis and hypokalaemia which should be treated symptomatically. Intravenous ammonium chloride can cause pain and irritation at the site of injection, which may be decreased by slowing the rate of infusion.

Excessive doses of ammonium salts, particularly if given by rapid intravenous injection, may give rise to hepatic encephalopathy due to the inability of the liver to convert the increased load of ammonium ions to urea.

Precautions

Ammonium salts are contra-indicated in patients with hepatic or renal impairment.

Pharmacokinetics

Ammonium chloride is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The ammonium ion is converted into urea in the liver; the anion thus liberated into the blood and extracellular fluid causes a metabolic acidosis and decreases the pH of the urine; this is followed by transient diuresis.

Uses and Administration

Ammonium chloride is used as an expectorant in productive cough (Go to Cough). Other ammonium salts which have been used similarly include the acetate, bicarbonate, camphorate, carbonate, and citrate (Go to Ammonium Citrate).

Giving ammonium chloride produces a transient diuresis and acidosis. It may be used in the treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis (Go to Metabolic alkalosis.). Each g of ammonium chloride represents 18.69 mmol of chloride. It is usually given as a 1 to 2% solution by slow intravenous infusion, in a dosage depending on the severity of the alkalosis. A concentrated solution of ammonium chloride may be diluted by sodium chloride injection.

Ammonium chloride may also be used to maintain the urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some urinary-tract disorders. It is usually given by mouth, often as enteric-coated tablets, in a dose of 1 to 2 g every four to six hours. Higher doses were sometimes used in forced acid diuresis procedures to aid the excretion of basic drugs, such as amfetamines, in severe cases of overdosage (but see Go to Treatment of Adverse Effects).

Ammonium chloride has been promoted for self administration as a diuretic, for example in premenstrual water retention; a dose of 650 mg three times daily for up to 6 days has been suggested, but such use is generally considered inappropriate.

Preparations

Single-ingredient Preparations

The symbol ¤ denotes a preparation which is discontinued or no longer actively marketed.

Australia: Nyal Bronchitis; France: Chlorammonic¤; Germany: Extin N; Spain: Apir Cloruro Amonico¤; Switzerland: Chloramon;

Multi-ingredient Preparations

The symbol ¤ denotes a preparation which is discontinued or no longer actively marketed.

Argentina: Benadryl Antitusivo; Benadryl DM Compuesto; Cobenzil Compuesto¤; Klonadryl Antitusivo; No-Tos Adultos; No-Tos Infantil; Omega 100 Expectorante; Polipectol¤; Refenax Jarabe; Australia: Adalixin C¤; Avil Decongestant; Benadryl for the Family Original; Benatuss¤; Benyphed¤; Bidramine¤; Bronchitis Mixture With Creosote¤; Chemists Own Cough Suppressant¤; Chemists Own Difenacol¤; Chemists Own Expectalix¤; Chemists Own Kiddicol¤; Delixir¤; Drixine Cough Expectorant¤; Gold Cross Cough Medicine¤; Hycomine¤; Senagar; Senamon¤; Senega and Ammonia; Seneplus¤; Spencer's Bronchitis; Austria: Aponatura Hustenlosende¤; Benadryl mit Codein¤; Benadryl; Bisolvotin¤; Expigen¤; Mediplant Krauter¤; Mucidan¤; Rowalind; Tussimont¤; Belgium: Romilar¤; Theralene Pectoral¤; Brazil: Acotoss; Alergo Glucalbet; Alergogel¤; Assepium Balsamico; Bacfar Balsamico¤; Bacgen Balsamico¤; Bacteracin Balsamico¤; Bactrex¤; Bactricin Balsamico¤; Bactrisan Balsamico¤; Bactropin Balsamico¤; Balsiprin¤; Benadryl; Benalet; Benatux; Benectrin Balsamico; Bequidril; Bronquidex; Drenotosse¤; Duoctrin Balsamico¤; Eaca Balsamico; Ectrin Balsamico; Endcoff; Expectil; Glicodin¤; Glytoss¤; Heractrin¤; Infectrin Balsamico¤; Kandril; Katrim Balsamico¤; Larimicina¤; Lupectrim Balsamico¤; Metoprin Balsamico¤; Narcotuss; Neotrin Balsamico¤; Ozonyl Expectorante; Paratosse¤; Peitoral Angico Pelotense; Psiu; Pulmotosse; Pyocoline¤; Quimio-Ped Balsamico¤; Santussal; Sedactrim Balsamico¤; Sekitol; Septiolan Balsamico¤; Stoptoss; Subitan¤; Sulfatrex¤; Suss Balsamico¤; Teutrin Balsamico¤; Tossbel¤; Tossestop¤; Tossilerg; Traqueobron¤; Trimetoprim Balsamico¤; Trimexazol Balsamico¤; Tussucalman; Tuzo¤; Xarope Valda¤; Canada: Alsidrine; Ambenyl¤; Balminil Codeine Night-Time+Expectorant; Balminil Night-Time; Bentasil Licorice with Echinacea; Bronch Eze¤; Bronchex¤; Bronchial; Bronchodex DM¤; Bronchosyl¤; Bronchozone; Bronco Asmol; Broncodeine¤; Buckley's Mixture; Calmylin No 4; Calmylin Original with Codeine; Calmylin; Cheracol¤; Cough Syrup with Codeine; Cough Syrup; DM Cough Syrup¤; DM Plus; Hycomine; Mathieu Cough Syrup¤; Pulmorex DM; Rophelin; Suppress; Trialyn DM; Wampole Bronchial Cough Syrup; Chile: Benylin; Broncodual Compuesto; Ciclotos; Pectoral Pasteur; Pectoserum¤; Pectover; Pulbronc; Pulmoquin¤; Solvanol; Tusabron; Vapoflu; Czech Republic: Acidigen; Denmark: Demulcin; Dumesil¤; Paradryl med efedrin; Finland: Expigen; Katapekt; Kvilla; France: Doudol¤; Theralene Pectoral Nourrisson¤; Theralene Pectoral¤; Germany: Antussan¤; Bronchitussin SC¤; Broncho-Tyrosolvetten¤; Bronchoforton cC¤; Dorex Hustensaft N mit Oxeladin¤; Dorex¤; Ephepect mit Codein¤; Ephepect-Pastillen N; Ephepect¤; Husten-Tee Bronchiflux¤; Mixtura solvens N Compretten¤; Mucidan¤; Optipect mit Kodein¤; Optipect¤; Praecipect mit Codein¤; Praecipect¤; Regulapect N¤; Rowalind¤; Salmiak; Soledum Hustensaft N¤; Soledum Hustentropfen N¤; Stoyet¤; sulfopecticept¤; Theralene¤; Urodil N¤; Hong Kong: Baby Cough with Antihistamine; Bena; Bendracol; Benylin CD; Benylin Cough; Chrisracol; DEC; Diphenhydramine Compound Linctus; Hova Expectorant; Hydramine Expectorant; Mist Expect Stim; Phencol; Phenexpect; Stadyl; Uni-Phen; Uni-Ramine CE; Uni-Ramine Expectorant; Hungary: Acidigen; Radipon; India: Avil Expectorant; Benadryl Cough; Cadicoff; Clistin; Cofdex; Cofihist; Cofton SF; Coscopin Plus; Coscopin; Cotaryl; Daslin; Deacos; Dilosyn Expectorant; Grilinctus; Lupihist; Mucaryl-AX; Nomokof-BNF; Nomokof; Pectylin-C; Piriton Expectorant; Ridcof; Siokof-P; Soventol; Toscof; Tristina; Tuspel Plus; Tuspel; Zedex-P; Zedex; Zeecof; Zeet Expectorant; Ireland: Benylin Chesty Cough¤; Bexalin¤; Clonalin¤; Rowalind¤; Venos Honey & Lemon; Israel: Broncho D; Tussosedan; Italy: Benadryl Complex¤; Benadryl¤; Bronchenolo; Pantosse¤; Romilar¤; Silomat Compositum¤; Malaysia: Allavin Expectorant; Bena; Benadryl CD¤; Benadryl Cough; Dexcophan Cough; Diphenhydramine Expectorant; Histodryl; Phenexpect; Uphadyl CD¤; Uphadyl Forte; Zainexpect CD¤; Zainexpect¤; Mexico: Codotusil¤; Jarabe de Capulin; Netherlands: Violent hoestsiroop voor kinderen¤; Violent hoestsiroop voor volwassenen¤; Norway: Expigen¤; Tussol¤; New Zealand: Benadryl Original; Portugal: Benetussin; Drenoflux¤; Fluidin Adulto¤; Fluidin Infantil¤; Russia: Zedex (Зедекс); South Africa: Actophlem; Alcophyllex; Allergin; Asalen Cough Linctus¤; Babys Own Cough Syrup; Becof; Benylin with Codeine; Benylin; Beramin¤; Betalin; Borstol Cough Remedy; Briscocough; Bronchiflu¤; Bronchoped; Broncleer with Codeine; Broncleer; Broncol; Cetrispect¤; Clear Cough; Coff-Up; Cothera Compound¤; Coughcod; D-Tussin¤; Degoran Cough¤; Diatussin; Difco¤; Dilinct; Diphenamill; Diphenhydramine Expectorant Syrup; Diphenhydramine Expectorant; DPH; Dynalin¤; Elixirol¤; Expectalin with Codeine; Expectalin; Expectotussin C¤; Expigen; Famstim¤; Famtuss¤; Flutex Cough Linctus; Histodor Expectorant; Lennamine; Linctodyl; Linctosan; Lotussin Expectorant; Medilyn; Medipax¤; Medituss; Panadoc¤; Peracon Expectorant; Puma Cough Balsam; Relief-Coff; SB Cirogin Cough Mixture; Solphyllex; Theocol¤; Theophen Comp; Tusquit; Tussilinct; Tussimed Expectorant¤; Tussimed¤; Tussitot; Singapore: Benadryl CD¤; Benadryl Cough; Bennatuss; Coughlax¤; Decofam Cough; Dibendyl Forte CD¤; Dibendyl¤; Diphen; Phenexpect CD; Phenexpect; XSP-Bena¤; Spain: Abactrim Balsamico¤; Benadryl Expectorante¤; Duponil¤; Efralen¤; Lasa Infantil¤; Licor Amoniacal¤; Lomisat Compositum¤; Nacient Sulf Con Ac Sali¤; Nacient Sulf¤; Romilar Expectorante¤; Septrin Balsamico¤; Tetrasulbron¤; Toscal Compuesto¤; Toscal¤; Tuselin Expectorante¤; Sweden: Exolyt; Mucidan¤; Quilla simplex; Senega¤; Switzerland: Benylin a la codeine N; Benylin¤; Bisolvon Linctus; Broncho-Rivo; Dextrolag¤; Expectorant Cough Syrup¤; Expectoryn¤; Hustex¤; Patussol¤; Pectramin; Thailand: Aracaf; Baby Cough Syrup; Baby Cough with Antihistamine; Baby Cough; Benadryl CD; Benadryl Cough; Benadryl DMP; Cheripex¤; Chinta¤; Chlorhist Baby Cough; Chlorhist Cough; Chlorleate Expectorant; Clinadryl; Cloton; Cofsed; Comfy; Contuss¤; Cotussin; Coughnadryl; Dastusin; Detuss¤; Dimophen DC; Ewadyl; Expiran¤; Histodryl; Iyafin; Med-Tussin¤; Nutacough; Ophan; Piriton Expectorant; Polydine; Romilar; Siltussin; Tenadrin; Tussis¤; Unituss; United Arab Emirates: Amydramine; Codaphed Plus; Histol Exp; Orcinol; United Kingdom: Allens Chesty Cough; Aqua Ban; BN¤; Bronalin Expectorant¤; Bronchial Mixture¤; Ecdylin¤; ES Bronchial Mixture¤; Guanor¤; Histalix; Lemsip Expectorant¤; Mandalyn Expectorant; Meltus Night Time; Menthodex; Penetrol¤; United States: Aqua Ban Plus; Aqua Ban; Father John's Medicine Plus; Quelidrine; Rolatuss Expectorant; Venezuela: Acetoben; Amodion; Corsaben; Dextonil; Hidrofan; Isacol; Kantol; Pi-Fedrin; Pidrol;



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